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Introduction

Waves occur frequently in nature. The most obvious examples are waves in water, on a dam, in the ocean, or in a bucket. We aremost interested in the properties that waves have. All waves have the same properties, so if we study waves in water, then we can transferour knowledge to predict how other examples of waves will behave.

What is a transverse wave ?

We have studied pulses in Transverse Pulses , and know that a pulse is a single disturbance that travels through a medium. A wave is a periodic, continuous disturbance that consists of a train or succession of pulses.

Wave

A wave is a periodic, continuous disturbance that consists of a train of pulses.

Transverse wave

A transverse wave is a wave where the movement of the particles of the medium is perpendicular (at a right angle) to the direction of propagation of the wave.

Investigation : transverse waves

Take a rope or slinky spring. Have two people hold the rope or spring stretched out horizontally. Flick the one end of the rope up and down continuously to create a train of pulses .

  1. Describe what happens to the rope.
  2. Draw a diagram of what the rope looks like while the pulses travel along it.
  3. In which direction do the pulses travel?
  4. Tie a ribbon to the middle of the rope. This indicates a particle in the rope.
  5. Flick the rope continuously. Watch the ribbon carefully as the pulses travel through the rope. What happens to the ribbon?
  6. Draw a picture to show the motion of the ribbon. Draw the ribbon as a dot and use arrows to indicate how it moves.

In the Activity, you have created waves. The medium through which these waves propagated was the rope, which is obviously made up of a very large number of particles (atoms). From the activity, you would have noticed that the wave travelled from left to right, but the particles (the ribbon) moved only up and down.

A transverse wave, showing the direction of motion of the wave perpendicular to the direction in which the particles move.

When the particles of a medium move at right angles to the direction of propagation of a wave, the wave is called transverse . For waves, there is no net displacement of the particles (they return to their equilibrium position), but there is a net displacement of the wave. There are thus two different motions: the motion of the particles of the medium and the motion of the wave.

The following simulation will help you understand more about waves. Select the oscillate option and then observe what happens.

Phet simulation for transverse waves

Peaks and troughs

Waves have moving peaks (or crests ) and troughs . A peak is the highest point the medium rises to and a trough is the lowest point the medium sinks to.

Peaks and troughs on a transverse wave are shown in [link] .

Peaks and troughs in a transverse wave.
Peaks and troughs

A peak is a point on the wave where the displacement of the medium is at a maximum. A point on the wave is a trough if the displacement of the medium at that point is at a minimum.

Amplitude and wavelength

There are a few properties that we saw with pulses that also apply to waves. These are amplitude and wavelength (we called this pulse length).

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
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Properties of longitudinal waves
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Sep 30, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11305/1.7
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