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Introduction

In this chapter we will explore the states of matter and then look at the kinetic molecular theory. Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas. We will also examine how the kinetic theory of matter helps explain boiling and melting points as well as other properties of matter.

When a gas is heated above a certain temperature the electrons in the atoms start to leave the atoms. The gas is said to be ionised. When a gas is ionised it is known as a plasma. Plasmas share many of the properties of gases (they have no fixed volume and fill the space they are in). This is a very high energy state and plasmas often glow. Ionisation is the process of moving from a gas to a plasma and deionisation is the reverse process. We will not consider plasmas further in this chapter.

States of matter

All matter is made up of particles. We can see this when we look at diffusion. Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration. Diffusion can be seen as a spreading out of particles resulting in an even distribution of the particles. You can see diffusion when you place a drop of food colouring in water. The colour slowly spreads out through the water. If matter were not made of particles then we would only see a clump of colour when we put the food colouring in water, as there would be nothing that could move about and mix in with the water. The composition of matter will be looked at in What are the objects around us made of? .

Diffusion is a result of the constant thermal motion of particles. In [link] we will talk more about the thermal motion of particles.

In 1828 Robert Brown observed that pollen grains suspended in water moved about in a rapid, irregular motion. This motion has since become known as Brownian motion. Brownian motion is essentially diffusion of many particles.

Matter exists in one of three states, namely solid, liquid and gas. Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat. This is known as a change of state. As we heat an object (e.g. water) it goes from a solid to a liquid to a gas. As we cool an object it goes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. The changes of state that you should know are:

  • Melting is the process of going from solid to liquid.
  • Boiling (or evaporation) is the process of going from liquid to gas.
  • Freezing is the process of going from liquid to solid.
  • Condensation is the process of going from gas to liquid.
  • Occasionally (e.g. for carbon dioxide) we can go directly from solid to gas in a process called sublimation.
A solid has a fixed shape and volume. A liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in. A gas completely fills the container that it is in. See [link] for more on changes of state.

If we know the melting and boiling point of a substance then we can say what state (solid, liquid or gas) it will be in at any temperature.

Experiment: states of matter

Aim

To investigate the heating and cooling curve of water.

Apparatus

beakers, ice, bunsen burner, thermometer, water.

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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