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These simple integer ratios are striking, particularly when viewed in the light of our conclusions from theLaw of Multiple Proportions. Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios, and evidently, volumes of gases also combinein simple whole number ratios. Why would this be? One simple explanation of this similarity would be that the volume ratio andthe ratio of atoms and molecules in the reaction are the same. In the case of the hydrogen and oxygen, this would say that the ratioof volumes (1 liter of oxygen : 2 liters of hydrogen : 2 liters of water) is the same as the ratio of atoms and molecules (1 atom ofoxygen: 2 atoms of hydrogen: 2 molecules of water). For this to be true, equal volumes of gas would have to contain equal numbers ofgas particles (atoms or molecules), independent of the type of gas. If true, this means that the volume of a gas must be a directmeasure of the number of particles (atoms or molecules) in the gas. This would allow us to "count" the number of gasparticles and determine molecular formulae.

There seem to be big problems with this conclusion, however. Look back at the data for forming hydrogenchloride: 1 liter of hydrogen plus 1 liter of chlorine yields 2 liters of hydrogen chloride. If our thinking is true, then this isequivalent to saying that 1 hydrogen atom plus 1 chlorine atom makes 2 hydrogen chloride molecules. But how could that bepossible? How could we make 2 identical molecules from a single chlorine atom and a single hydrogen atom? This would require us todivide each hydrogen and chlorine atom, violating the postulates of the atomic-molecular theory.

Another problem appears when we weigh the gases: 1 liter of oxygen gas weighs more than 1 liter of watervapor. If we assume that these volumes contain equal numbers of particles, then we must conclude that 1 oxygen particle weighs morethan 1 water particle. But how could that be possible? It wouldseem that a water molecule, which contains at least one oxygen atom, should weigh more than a single oxygen particle.

These are serious objections to the idea that equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of particles. Ourpostulate appears to have contradicted common sense and experimental observation. However, the simple ratios of theLaw of Combining Volumes are also equally compelling. Why should volumes react in simple whole number ratios if they donot represent equal numbers of particles? Consider the opposite viewpoint: if equal volumes of gas do not contain equal numbers ofparticles, then equal numbers of particles must be contained in unequal volumes not related by integers. Now when we combineparticles in simple whole number ratios to form molecules, the volumes of gases required would produce decidedly non-whole numberratios. The Law of Combining Volumes should not be contradictedlightly.

There is only one logical way out. We will accept our deduction from theLaw of Combining Volumes that equal volumesof gas contain equal numbers of particles , a conclusion known as Avogadro's Hypothesis . How do we account for the fact that 1 liter of hydrogen plus 1 liter of chlorine yields 2liters of hydrogen chloride? There is only one way for a single hydrogen particle to produce 2 identical hydrogen chloridemolecules: each hydrogen particle must contain more than one atom. In fact, each hydrogen particle (or molecule) must contain an evennumber of hydrogen atoms. Similarly, a chlorine molecule must contain an even number of chlorine atoms.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry i. OpenStax CNX. Jul 18, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10263/1.3
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