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Foundation

We begin by assuming the central postulates of the Atomic-Molecular Theory . These are:

  • the elements are comprised of identical atoms
  • all atoms of a single element have the same characteristic mass
  • the number and masses of these atoms do not change during a chemical transformation
  • compounds consist of identical molecules formed of atoms combined in simple whole number ratios
. We also assume a knowledge of theobserved natural laws on which this theory is based: the Law of Conservation of Mass , the Law of Definite Proportions , and the Law of Multiple Proportions .

Goals

We have concluded that atoms combine in simple ratios to form molecules. However, we don't know what thoseratios are. In other words, we have not yet determined any molecular formulae. In the second table of Concept Development Study #1 , wefound that the mass ratios for nitrogen oxide compounds were consistent with many different molecular formulae. A glance back atthe nitrogen oxide data shows that the oxide B could be N O , N O 2 , N 2 O , or any other simple ratio.

Each of these formulae correspond to different possible relative atomic weights for nitrogen and oxygen. Sinceoxide B has oxygen to nitrogen ratio 1.14 : 1, then the relative masses of oxygen to nitrogen could be 1.14:1 or 2.28:1 or 0.57:1 ormany other simple possibilities. If we knew the relative masses of oxygen and nitrogen atoms, we could determine the molecular formulaof oxide B. On the other hand, if we knew the molecular formula of oxide B, we could determine the relative masses of oxygen andnitrogen atoms. If we solve one problem, we solve both. Our problem then is that we need a simple way to "count" atoms, atleast in relative numbers.

Observation 1: volume relationships in chemical reactions

Although mass is conserved, most chemical and physical properties are not conserved during a reaction. Volume isone of those properties which is not conserved, particularly when the reaction involves gases as reactants or products. For example,hydrogen and oxygen react explosively to form water vapor. If we take 1 liter of oxygen gas and 2 liters of hydrogen gas, by carefulanalysis we could find that the reaction of these two volumes is complete, with no left over hydrogen and oxygen, and that 2 litersof water vapor are formed. Note that the total volume is not conserved: 3 liters of oxygen and hydrogen become 2 liters of watervapor. (All of the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure.)

More notable is the fact that the ratios of the volumes involved are simple whole number ratios: 1 liter ofoxygen : 2 liters of hydrogen : 2 liters of water. This result proves to be general for reactions involving gases. For example, 1liter of nitrogen gas reacts with 3 liters of hydrogen gas to form 2 liters of ammonia gas. 1 liter of hydrogen gas combines with 1liter of chlorine gas to form 2 liters of hydrogen chloride gas. These observations can be generalized into the Law of Combining Volumes .

Law of combining volumes

When gases combine during a chemical reaction at a fixed pressure and temperature, the ratiosof their volumes are simple whole number ratios.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry i. OpenStax CNX. Jul 18, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10263/1.3
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