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The poset of the set of positive real numbers with the less-than-or-equal-to relation is not a well order, because the set itself does not have any least element (0 is not in the set).

A digraph of a binary relation on a set can be simplified if the relation is a partial order. Hasse diagrams defined as follows are such graphs.

Definition(Hasse diagram): A Hasse diagram is a graph for a poset which does not have loops and arcs implied by the transitivity. Further, it is drawn so that all arcs point upward eliminating arrowheads.

To obtain the Hassse diagram of a poset, first remove the loops, then remove arcs<a, b>if and only if there is an element c that<a, c>and<c, b>exist in the given relation.

Example 10: For the relation {<a, a>,<a, b>,<a, c>,<b, b>,<b, c>,<c, c>} on set {a, b,c}, the Hasse diagram has the arcs {<a, b>,<b, c>} as shown in Figure 10.

Topological sorting

The elements in a finite poset can be ordered linearly in a number of ways while preserving the partial order. For example {∅, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}} with the partial order ⊆, can be ordered linearly as ∅, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}, or ∅, {2}, {1}, {1, 2}. In these orders a set appears before (to the left of) another set if it is a subset of the other. In real life, tasks for manufacturing goods in general can be partially ordered based on the prerequisite relation, that is certain tasks must be completed before certain other tasks can be started. For example the arms of a chair must be carved before the chair is assembled. Scheduling those tasks is essentially the same as arranging them with a linear order (ignoring here some possible concurrent processing for simplicity's sake).

The topological sorting is a procedure to find from a partial order on a finite set a linear order that does not violate the partial order. It is based on the fact that a finite poset has at least one minimal element. The basic idea of the topological sorting is to first remove a minimal element from the given poset, and then repeat that for the resulting set until no more elements are left. The order of removal of the minimal elements gives a linear order. The following algorithm formally describes the topological sorting.

Algorithm Topological Sort

Input: A finite poset<A, R>.

Output: A sequence of the elements of A preserving the order R.

integer i;

i := 1;

while ( A ≠∅) {

    pick a minimal element b from A;

    A := A - {b};

    i := i + 1;

    output b

} Example: Let A = {{1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}} with the partial order ⊆. This given A has three minimal elements {1}, {2}, and {3}.

Select {2} and remove it from A. Let A denote the resultant set i.e. A := A - {2}. The new A has two minimal elements {1}, and {3}.

Select {1} and remove it from A. Denote by A the resultant set, that is A = {{3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}}.

This new A has two minimal elements {3} and {1, 2}.

Select {1, 2} and remove it from A.

Proceeding in like manner, we can obtain the following linear order: {{2}, {1}, {1, 2}, {3}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}}.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
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Maciej
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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Source:  OpenStax, Discrete structures. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10768/1.1
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