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Possible molecular formulae for nitrogen oxides
Assuming that: Oxide C is NO Oxide B is NO Oxide A is NO
Oxide A is NO 4 NO 2 NO
Oxide B is NO 2 NO N 2 O
Oxide C is NO N 2 O N 4 O

We don’t have a way to know which of these sets of molecular formulas are right, since all three sets are consistent with the data we have. How can we pick the right one? If we had some way to “count” the numbers of atoms in a sample of each compounds, then we would know. This sounds quite difficult, though. On the other hand, if we knew that the ratio of the mass of an nitrogen atom to an oxygen atom is 2.28:1.00, which is the mass ratio in Oxide A, then we could know that Oxide A is NO. But we don’t have a way to take the mass of an individual atom, even on a relative basis.

What we have learned is that, if we know the relative masses of the atoms, we can determine molecular formulas. And if we know the molecular formulas, we can determine relative atomic masses. We need one or the other to move forward.


We are assuming that we know the postulates of the Atomic Molecular Theory, as developed in the first Concept Development Study. These are: (1) the elements are comprised of identical atoms; (2) all atoms of a single element have the same characteristic mass; (3) the number and masses of these atoms do not change during a chemical transformation; and (4) compounds consist of identical molecules formed of atoms combined in simple whole number ratios. We will base much of our work on the observed natural laws on which our theory is based: the Law of Conservation of Mass, the Law of Definite Proportions, and the Law of Multiple Proportions.

We will be making observations about the physical properties of gas samples, particularly the volumes of gases measured under conditions with a fixed temperature and a fixed pressure. We will not need much technical information about temperature and pressure. For now, we will simply stick with the common understanding that temperature is a measure of how hot or cold a sample of a substance is. Temperature can be measured by a thermometer, which is any kind of gadget which gives us the same value for two objects that are in contact with each other so that they have the same temperature. Pressure is a measure of what is sometimes called the “spring of air,” which is the force with which a gas resists compression. There are a number of ways to measure pressure, but we will only need to know that we have a way to take measurements on gas samples such that they have the same pressure.

Observation 1: volumes of gases during chemical reactions

During chemical reactions, some chemical and physical properties such as the total mass of the materials remain unchanged, but most properties do change. We commonly observe changes in properties when new materials are made. For example, products of reactions in comparison to the reactants may appear harder or softer, more or less colorful, more or less brittle, and more or less dense. For gases that react, volume is one of those properties that is not always conserved. A famous explosive reaction of gases involves the burning of hydrogen gas in oxygen gas to form water vapor, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. If 1 liter of oxygen gas reacts with 2 liters of hydrogen gas, the product water vapor will occupy 2 liters with no hydrogen or oxygen gas left over. (This is true if the volumes are measured with all gases at the same temperature and pressure.) Notice that the total volume of gases is not conserved: the combined volume of the reactants is 3 liters, but the volume of the product is 2 liters.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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