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Perhaps most important, the title-page to The Sphinx is the first of many pages to be printed in three colors, and it must have been especially breathtaking to the poem’sfirst readers on this account. The Victorian period contains few precedents for the manner in which Ricketts has used color, both on the title page andthroughout The Sphinx , to integrate strictly visual material and letterpress text. For instance, the rust-coloredink utilized first for the title page “Melancholia” design is used again repeatedly, throughout the book, for the title words (“The Sphinx”) of thebook’s running header. Similarly, green ink is utilized throughout to achieve a series of visual “rhymes” between illuminated capital letters and catchwords, onthe one hand, and the bibliographic data listed on the title page. Though green ink has admittedly been confined to strictly “textual” materials in each case,the effect of Ricketts’s use of it is to highlight such materials as visual and material phenomena, thereby integrating them with other colored and visualelements of the book.

This integration of text and vision through color is all the more remarkable when we consider that fine color printing was still agreat luxury in the 1890s, especially where letterpress printing was involved. Chromolithography, a planographic technique for the printing of color perfectedin the early Victorian period, had been utilized previously with great success in such works as Owen Jones’s The Grammar of Ornament (1856) or Henry Noel Humphreys’s The Art of Illumination (1849), but it required colors to be printed—at great expense of time and money—on a separate “plate”from the text, often on a different paper. Already on the wane by the 1870s, chromolithography was best suited to works of abstract and geometric design, butit was ill suited to letterpress printing and to book illustration (insofar as book illustration requires representational forms), where a more thoroughgoingintegration of text and design was required (see Frankel, “Ecstasy of Decoration” and “The Designer’s Eye”). Wood engraving held more promise so faras literary publishers and printers were concerned: a number of printers had perfected the art of printing from wood engravings in the 1860s, 1870s and1880s, producing color-illustrated books (McLean, 171-204) that are still notable both for the excellence of their printing and for the marriage ofletterpress text with wood-engraved illustration. But such successes were usually confined to the children’s and gift book markets or to specializedworks, such as works of ornithology and botany. Rarely had relief printing in color been applied to works of poetry and adult literature; and rarely had thetext itself been saturated with color. There are two exceptions to this rule—firstly, the occasional printing of illuminatedcapitals and chapter headings in red ink, especially in religious and bibliophile productions. See also n. 25 below. The second exception is constituted by many of the books produced for children by Walter Crane, such as Baby’s Own Aesop (1886) and Flora’s Feast (1889), where the text itself is printed in color by the process of wood-engraving rather than letterpressprinting. Wilde wrote a review of Flora’s Feast upon its appearance in 1889, calling it “as lovely in colour as it is exquisite in design” (“Some Literary Notes I,” 390). As stated above,Crane provided an important model for Wilde’s own ideas about design. Even in the hands of master printers such as George Leighton and Edmund Evans (the latter of whom printed books by Kate Greenaway and WalterCrane, as well as illustrations by Randolph Caldecott), color was almost always confined to “illustration” as an accompaniment to the monochrome letterpresstext. With the exception of Ricketts’s friend Lucien Pissarro (whose Eragny Press from 1895 onwards would earn a reputation for finely-printed color woodengravings as accompaniments to works of literature), no fine printers or private presses associated with the so-called revival of printing had hithertoexperimented with printing in multiple colors, let alone with using color to integrate text and vision. The best surveys of the so-called revival of printing are Colin Franklin, The Private Presses (2 nd ed. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1991); Roderick Cave, The Private Press (2 nd ed. New York: Bowker, 1983) and Will Ransom, Private Presses and Their Books (1929; rpt. New York, AMS Press, 1976). See also Ricketts’s A Defence and Holbook Jackson, The Eighteen Nineties: A Review of Art and Ideas at the Close of the NineteenthCentury (New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1914), 309-23. William Morris had been persuaded before 1894 to introduce color into Kelmscott Press books inthe form of chapter titles and catchwords printed in red (a practice later to be imitated by many other private printers, including Ricketts). But Morrisutilized red ink only sparingly and was averse to the introduction of any other colors. As Ricketts rightly observed in 1899, The Sphinx “is the first book of the modern revival printed in three colours” ( A Defence , 25), and its printing must have been especially eye-opening to its earliest readerson this account.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
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Daniel
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Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Damian Reply
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
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Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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AMJAD
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Victor Reply
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Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The sphinx. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11196/1.2
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