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Phosphorescence is the emission of light, in which the excited state electron has the same spin orientation as the ground state electron. This transition is a forbidden one and hence the emission rates are slow (10 3 - 10 0 s -1 ). So the phosphorescence lifetimes are longer, typically seconds to several minutes, while the excited phosphors slowly returned to the ground state. Phosphorescence is still seen, even after the exciting light source is removed. Group 12-16 semiconductor quantum dots exhibit fluorescence properties when excited with ultraviolet light.

Instrumentation

The working schematic for the fluorometer is shown in [link] .

Schematic of fluorometer.

The light source

The excitation energy is provided by a light source that can emit wavelengths of light over the ultraviolet and the visible range. Different light sources can be used as excitation sources such as lasers, xenon arcs and mercury-vapor lamps. The choice of the light source depends on the sample. A laser source emits light of a high irradiance at a very narrow wavelength interval. This makes the need for the filter unnecessary, but the wavelength of the laser cannot be altered significantly. The mercury vapor lamp is a discrete line source. The xenon arc has a continuous emission spectrum between the ranges of 300 - 800 nm.

The diffraction grating and primary filter

The diffraction grating splits the incoming light source into its component wavelengths ( [link] ). The monochromator can then be adjusted to choose with wavelengths to pass through. Following the primary filter, specific wavelengths of light are irradiated onto the sample

Sample cell and sample preparation

A proportion of the light from the primary filter is absorbed by the sample. After the sample gets excited, the fluorescent substance returns to the ground state, by emitting a longer wavelength of light in all directions ( [link] ). Some of this light passes through a secondary filter. For liquid samples, a square cross section tube sealed at one end and all four sides clear, is used as a sample cell. The choice of cuvette depends on three factors:

  1. Type of solvent - For aqueous samples, specially designed rectangular quartz, glass or plastic cuvettes are used. For organic samples glass and quartz cuvettes are used.
  2. Excitation wavelength – Depending on the size and thus, bandgap of the Group 12-16 semiconductor nanoparticles, different excitation wavelengths of light are used. Depending on the excitation wavelength, different materials are used ( [link] ).
    Cuvette materials and their wavelengths.
    Cuvette Wavelength (nm)
    Visible only glass 380 - 780
    Visible only plastic 380 - 780
    UV plastic 220 - 780
    Quartz 200 - 900
  3. Cost – Plastic cuvettes are the least expensive and can be discarded after use. Though quartz cuvettes have the maximum utility, they are the most expensive, and need to reused. Generally, disposable plastic cuvettes are used when speed is more important than high accuracy.
A typical cuvette for fluorescence spectroscopy.

The cuvettes have a 1 cm path length for the light ( [link] ). The best cuvettes need to be very clear and have no impurities that might affect the spectroscopic reading. Defects on the cuvette, such as scratches, can scatter light and hence should be avoided. Since the specifications of a cuvette are the same for both, the UV-visible spectrophotometer and fluorimeter, the same cuvette that is used to measure absorbance can be used to measure the fluorescence. For Group 12-16 semiconductor nanoparticles preparted in organic solvents, the clear four sided quartz cuvette is used. The sample solution should be dilute (absorbance<1 au), to avoid very high signal from the sample to burn out the detector. The solvent used to disperse the nanoparticles should not absorb at the excitation wavelength.

Questions & Answers

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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
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y=10×
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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