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After a centering plot is performed the plot is examined to determine whether the sample is centered in the SQUID pickup coils. The sample is centered when the part of the large, middle curve is within 5cm of the half-way point of the scan length.

The shape of the plot is a function of the geometry of the coils. The coils are wound in a way which strongly rejects interference from nearby magnetic sources and lets the MPMS function without a superconducting shield around the pickup coils.

Geometric considerations

To minimize background noise and stray field effects, the MPMS magnetometer pick-up coil takes the form of a second-order gradiometer. An important feature of this gradiometer is that moving a long, homogeneous sample through it produces no signal as long as the sample extends well beyond the ends of the coil during measurement.

As a sample holder is moved through the gradiometer pickup coil, changes in thickness, mass, density, or magnetic susceptibility produce a signal. Ideally, only the sample to be measured produces this change. A homogeneous sample that extends well beyond the pick-up coils does not produce a signal, yet a small sample does produce a signal. There must be a crossover between these two limits. The sample length (along the field direction) should not exceed 10 mm. In order to obtain the most accurate measurements, it is important to keep the sample susceptibility constant over its length; otherwise distortions in the SQUID signal (deviations from a dipole signal) can result. It is also important to keep the sample close to the magnetometer centerline to get the most accurate measurements. When the sample holder background contribution is similar in magnitude to the sample signal, the relative positions of the sample and the materials producing the background are important. If there is a spatial offset between the two along the magnet axis, the signal produced by the combined sample and background can be highly distorted and will not be characteristic of the dipole moment being measured.

Even if the signal looks good at one temperature, a problem can occur if either of the contributions are temperature dependent.

Careful sample positioning and a sample holder with a center, or plane, of symmetry at the sample (i.e. materials distributed symmetrically about the sample, or along the principal axis for a symmetry plane) helps eliminate problems associated with spatial offsets.

Containing the sample

Keep the sample space of the MPMS magnetometer clean and free of contamination with foreign materials. Avoid accidental sample loss into the sample space by properly containing the sample in an appropriate sample holder. In all cases it is important to close the sample holder tube with caps in order to contain a sample that might become unmounted. This helps avoid sample loss and subsequent damage during the otherwise unnecessary recovery procedure. Position caps well out of the sample-measuring region and introduce proper venting.

Sample preparation workspace

Work area cleanliness and avoiding sample contamination are very important concerns. There are many possible sources of contamination in a laboratory. Use diamond tools when cutting hard materials. Avoid carbide tools because of potential contamination by the cobalt binder found in many carbide materials. The best tools for preparing samples and sample holders are made of plastic, titanium, brass, and beryllium copper (which also has a small amount of cobalt). Tools labeled non-magnetic can actually be made of steel and often be made "magnetic" from exposure to magnetic fields. However, the main concern from these "non-magnetic" tools is contamination by the iron and other ferrous metals in the tool. It is important to have a clean white-papered workspace and a set of tools dedicated to mounting your own samples. In many cases, the materials and tools used can be washed in dilute acid to remove ferrous metal impurities. Follow any acid washes with careful rinsing with deionized water.

Questions & Answers

a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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f(n)= 2n + 1
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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