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Raman Spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study Carbon nanotubes at single nanotube level. Length, diameter, electronic type (metallic or semiconducting), and whether nanotubes are separated or in bundle can be known by the use of Raman Spectroscopy.

Introduction

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have proven to be a unique system for the application of Raman spectroscopy, and at the same time Raman spectroscopy has provided an exceedingly powerful tool useful in the study of the vibrational properties and electronic structures of CNTs. Raman spectroscopy has been successfully applied for studying CNTs at single nanotube level.

The large van der Waals interactions between the CNTs lead to an agglomeration of the tubes in the form of bundles or ropes. This problem can be solved by wrapping the tubes in a surfactant or functionalizing the SWNTs by attaching appropriate chemical moieties to the sidewalls of the tube. Functionalization causes a local change in the hybridization from sp 2 to sp 3 of the side-wall carbon atoms, and Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine this change. In addition information on length, diameter, electronic type (metallic or semiconducting), and whether nanotubes are separated or in bundle can be obtained by the use of Raman spectroscopy. Recent progress in understanding the Raman spectra of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have stimulated Raman studies of more complicated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), but unfortunately quantitative determination of the latter is not possible at the present state of art.

Characterizing swnts

Raman spectroscopy is a single resonance process, i.e., the signals are greatly enhanced if either the incoming laser energy ( E laser ) or the scattered radiation matches an allowed electronic transition in the sample. For this process to occur, the phonon modes are assumed to occur at the center of the Brillouin zone (q = 0). Owing to their one dimensional nature, the Π-electronic density of states of a perfect, infinite, SWNTs form sharp singularities which are known as van Hove singularities (vHs), which are energetically symmetrical with respect to Fermi level ( E f ) of the individual SWNTs. The allowed optical transitions occur between matching vHs of the valence and conduction band of the SWNTs, i.e., from first valence band vHs to the first conduction band vHs ( E 11 ) or from the second vHs of the valence band to the second vHs of the conduction band ( E 22 ). Since the quantum state of an electron (k) remains the same during the transition, it is referred to as k-selection rule.

The electronic properties, and therefore the individual transition energies in SWNTs are given by their structure, i.e., by their chiral vector that determines the way SWNT is rolled up to form a cylinder. [link] shows a SWNT having vector R making an angle θ, known as the chiral angle, with the so-called zigzag or r 1 direction.

The unrolled honeycomb lattice of a nanotube. When the sites O and A, and the sites B and C are connected, a portion of a graphene sheet can be rolled seamlessly to form a SWNT. The vectors OA and OB define the chiral vector R of the nanotube, respectively. The rectangle OABC defines the unit cell if the nanotube. The figure is constructed for ( n,m ) = (4,2) nanotube. Adapted from M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, and A. Jorio, Physics Reports , 2004, 2 , 47.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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