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Icp-aes of nanoparticles to determine elemental composition

As with any sample being studied by ICP-AES nanoparticles need to be digested so that all the atoms can be vaporized in the plasma equally. If a metal containing nanoparticle were not digested using a strong acid to bring the metals atoms into solution, the form of the particle could hinder some of the material being vaporized. The analyte would not be detected even though it is present in the sample and this would give an erroneous result. Nanoparticles are often covered with a protective layer of organic ligands and this must be removed also. Further to this the solvent used for the nanoparticles may also be an organic solution and this should be removed as it too will not be miscible in the aqueous medium.

Several organic solvents have low vapor pressures so it is relatively easy to remove the solvent by heating the samples, removing the solvent by evaporation. To remove the organic ligands that are present on the nanoparticle, choric acid can be used. This is a very strong acid and can break down the organic ligands readily. To digest the particles and get the metal into solution concentrated nitric acid is often used.

A typical protocol may use 0.5 mL of concentrated nanoparticle solution and digest this with 9.5 mL of concentrated nitric acid over the period of a few days. After which 0.5 mL of the digested solution is placed in 9.5 mL of nanopure water. The reason why nanopure water is used is because DI water or regular water will have some amount of metals ions present and these will be detected by the ICP-AES measurement and will lead to figures that are not truly representative of the analyte concentration alone. This is especially pertinent when there is a very a low concentration of metal analyte to be detected, and is even more a problem when the metal to be detected is commonly found in water such as iron. Once the nanopure water and digested solution are prepared then the sample is ready for analysis.

Another point to consider when doing ICP-AES on nanoparticles to determine chemical compositions, includes the potential for wavelength overlap. The energy that is released in the form of light is unique to each element, but elements that are very similar in atomic structure will have emission wavelengths that are very similar to one another. Consider the example of iron and cobalt, these are both transition metals and sit right beside each other on the periodic table. Iron has an emission wavelength at 238.204 nm and cobalt has an emission wavelength at 238.892 nm. So if you were to try determine the amount of each element in an alloy of the two you would have to select another wavelength that would be unique to that element, and not have any wavelength overlap to other analytes in solution. For this case of iron and cobalt it would be wiser to use a wavelength for iron detection of 259.940 nm and a wavelength detection of 228.616 nm. Bearing this in mind a good rule of thumb is to try use the wavelength of the analyte that affords the best detection primarily. But if this value leads to a possible wavelength overlap of within 15 nm wavelength with another analyte in the solution then another choice should be made of the detection wavelength to prevent wavelength overlap from occurring.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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