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Eric drexler: molecular manufacturing

"The revolutionary Feynman vision launched the global nanotechnology race."-Eric Drexler

In 1979, Eric Drexler ( [link] ) encountered Feynman's talk on atomic manipulation and "nano-factories." The Caltechphysicist's ideas inspired Drexler to put these concepts into motion by expanding Feynman's vision of molecular manufacturing withcontemporary developments in understanding protein function. From this moment, Drexler's primary goal was to build upon the physicist's revolutionary foundation. As a result, though the term was yet to becoined, the field of nanotechnology was created.

American engineer Kim Eric Drexler (1955- ).

In 1981, Drexler published his first article on the subject in the prestigious scientific journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . Titled "Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilitiesfor molecular manipulation," Drexler's publication essentially expanded the idea of molecular manufacturing by integrating modernscientific ideas with Feynman's concepts. Hence, he established his own vision of molecular manufacturing in this paper. Specifically, inhis abstract, he discusses the possibility of molecular manufacturing as a process of fabricating objects with specific atomicspecifications using designed protein molecules. He suggests that this would inevitably lead to the design of molecular machinery that wouldbe able to position reactive groups with atomic precision. Thus, Drexler states that molecular manufacturing and the construction of"nano-machines" is a product of an analogous relationship "between features of natural macromolecules and components of existingmachines." In addition, Drexler includes a table that outlines by function the molecular equivalents to macroscopic technologies. Forexample, he believed that bearings, which provide support for moving parts, are analogous to Sigma bonds. Overall, generating some interestin the scientific community, this publication presented Drexler's initial vision of molecular manufacturing, which was ultimatelyinfluenced by Feynman's talk. As a result, the field of nanotechnology continued to evolve, for Drexler took these conceptsand expanded their potential in an accessible format through his now infamous book, Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology ( [link] ).

The cover of Eric Drexler's book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology .

Eric drexler: engines of creation

"Molecular Assemblers will bring a revolution without parallel since the development of ribosomes, theprimitive assemblers in the cell. The resulting nanotechnology can help life spread beyond Earth - a step without parallel since lifespread beyond the seas; it can let our minds renew and remake our bodies - a step without any parallel at all." - Eric Drexler in Engines of Creation .

In this book, Drexler is credited as being the first person to use the word nanotechnology to describe engineering onthe billionth of a meter scale. Though the term was used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, Taniguchi's use of the word referred tonanotechnology in a different context. Published in 1986, Engines of Creation served to present Drexler's vision of molecular manufacturing that he outlined in his 1981 paper.Essentially, Drexler presented, albeit simplistically, that if atoms are viewed as small marbles, then molecules are a tight collection ofthese marbles that "snap" together, depending on their chemical properties. When snapped together in the right way, these moleculescould represent normal-scaled tools such as motors and gears. Drexler suggested that these "atomic" tools and machines would operate just astheir larger counterparts do. The moving parts of the nano-machine (e.g., [link] ) would be formed by many atoms that are held together by their own atomic bonds. Ultimately, inEngines of Creation, Drexler envisioned that these would then be used as "assemblers" that could put together atoms into a desired shape.Applying this simplistic vision of molecular manufacturing, Drexler, in theory, presented that coal can be turned into diamond and computerchips can be created from sand. These processes would occur by using these fabricated atomic tools to reorganize the atoms that make upthese materials. Most importantly, from these principles, he sensationally proclaimed in his book that nanotechnology, through themolecular manufacturing of "universal assemblers," would revolutionize everything from biological science to space travel (see quoteabove). Thus, with both his 1981 publication and his 1986 book, Drexler presented nanotechnology as a scientific field that solelyrevolved around his own expanded vision of Feynman's molecular manufacturing.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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