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Analysis and applications for carbon nanomaterials

Chemical speciation

The XP survey scan is an effective way to determine the identity of elements present on the surface of a material, as well as the approximate relative ratios of the elements detected. This has important implications for carbon nanomaterials, in which surface composition is of greatest importance in their uses. XPS may be used to determine the purity of a material. For example, nanodiamond powder is a created by detonation, which can leave nitrogenous groups and various oxygen containing groups attached to the surface. [link] shows a survey scan of a nanodiamond thin film with the relative atomic percentages of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen being 91.25%, 6.25%, and 1.7%, respectively. Based on the XPS data, the nanodiamond material is approximately 91.25% pure.

Survey XPS of a nanodiamond thin film. Adapted from F. Y. Xie, W. G. Xie, J. Chen, X. Liu, D. Y. Lu, and W. H. Zhang, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B , 2008, 26 , 102.

XPS is a useful method to verify the efficacy of a purification process. For example, high-pressure CO conversion single-walled nanotubes (HiPco SWNTs) are made using iron as a catalyst. [link] shows the Fe2p XP spectra for pristine and purified HiPco SWNTs.

High resolution scan of Fe2p peak for pristine and purified HiPco SWNTs. Adapted with permission from C. M. Yang, H. Kanoh, K. Kaneko, M. Yudasaka, and S. Iijima, J. Phys. Chem. B , 2002, 106 , 8994. Copyright: American Chemical Society (2002).

For this application, XPS is often done in conjunction with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which measures the weight lost from a sample at increasing temperatures. TGA data serves to corroborate the changes observed with the XPS data by comparing the percentage of weight loss around the region of the impurity suspected based on the XP spectra. The TGA data support the reduction in iron content with purification suggested by the XP spectra above, for the weight loss at temperatures consistent with iron loss decreases from 27% in pristine SWNTs to 18% in purified SWNTs. Additionally, XPS can provide information about the nature of the impurity. In [link] , the Fe2p spectrum for pristine HiPco SWNTs shows two peaks characteristic of metallic iron at 707 and 720 eV. In contrast, the Fe2p spectrum for purified HiPco SWNTs also shows two peaks at 711 and 724 eV, which are characteristic of either Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 . In general, the atomic percentage of carbon obtained from the XPS spectrum is a measure of the purity of the carbon nanomaterials.

Bonding and functional groups

XP spectra give evidence of functionalization and can provide insight into the identity of the functional groups. Carbon nanomaterials provide a versatile surface which can be functionalized to modulate their properties. For example, the sodium salt of phenyl sulfonated SWNTs is water soluble. In the XP survey scan of the phenyl sulfonated SWNTs, there is evidence of functionalization owing to the appearance of the S2p peak. [link] shows the survey XP spectrum of phenyl sulfonated SWNTs.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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