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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Mycobacterial Infections (Mandell 8th Ch 251-
Download Mycobacterial Quiz PDF eBook
15 Pages
2015
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the Mycobacterial Infections (Mandell 8th Ch 251-254) Quiz

Question: What is the estimated amount of TB bacilli required for sputum AFB positivity?

Choices:

10 organisms/mL

100 organisms/mL

1,000 organisms/mL

10,000 organisms/mL

Question: Which among the first-line anti-tuberculous drugs is bacteriostatic?

Choices:

Rifampicin

Isoniazid

Pyrazinamide

Ethambutol

Question: How long after a person with tuberculosis has left will a room remain infectious?

Choices:

Infectious droplets will remain infectious up to 30 minutes after a person has left the room

Infectious droplets will remain infectious up to 15 minutes after a person has left the room

Infectious droplets will remain infectious only until after a person has left the room

Infectious droplets will remain infectious up to 60 minutes after a person has left the room

Question: Which best describes skin lesions of lepromatous leprosy?

Choices:

Symmetric, poorly marginated, multiple infiltrated nodules and plaques or diffuse infiltration; hypesthesia is a late sign

One or few sharply-defined annular asymmetric macules or plaques with a tendency toward central clearing; elevated borders; early anesthetic skin lesions

Ill-defined plaques with an occasional sharp margin; few or many in number; hypesthetic or anesthetic skin lesions

Asymmetric, well-defined, multiple infiltrated nodules and plaques or diffuse infiltration; hypesthesia is an early sign

Question: Which of the following is considered extended drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)?

Choices:

sputum MTB isolate resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin

sputum MTB isolate resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin

sputum MTB isolate resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, moxifloxacin and amikacin

sputum MTB isolate resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ofloxacin and streptomycin

Question: The most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Choices:

Skeletal tuberculosis

Tuberculous meningitis

Tuberculous lymphadenitis

Tuberculous peritonitis

Question: Which best describes CSF analysis of a patient with TB meningitis?

Choices:

CSF: WBC 500/L, lymphocytes 90%; protein 8g/L (800mg/dL), glucose 30mg/dL

CSF: WBC 10,000/L, PMNs 90%; protein 7g/L (700mg/dL), glucose 30mg/dL

CSF: WBC 4/L, lymphocytes 80%; protein 40mg/dL, glucose 40mg/dL

CSF: WBC 15,000/L, PMNs 90%; protein 10g/L 1000mg/dL), glucose 30mg/dL

Question: A 40 year-old indigent was seen at the outpatient department due to an anesthetic patch over his left forearm. A skin biopsy was done and revealed tuberculoid or paucibacillary lepropsy. Based on WHO, how will this patient be managed?

Choices:

He will be given dapsone 100mg/day PLUS rifampicin 600mg/month for 6 months

He will be given dapsone 100mg/day PLUS clofazimine 50mg/day AND rifampicin 600mg/month PLUS clofazimine 300mg monthly for 1 year

He will be given dapsone 100mg/day for 1 year

He will be given rifampicin 600mg/day for 3 years PLUS dapsone 100mg/day indefinitely

Question: The strongest risk factor that favor progression of infection to active pulmonary tuberculosis

Choices:

Renal failure

Malnutrition

Immunosuppression

AIDS

Question: Which is the recommended cut-off measurement of a positive tuberculin skin test in the following individuals?

Choices:

5mm or more induration in an individual with type 2 DM

5mm or more induration in an individual with end-stage renal disease

5mm or more induration in an individual with HIV

10mm or more induration in an individual who is a close contact of a TB patient

Question: In treating persons with MDR-TB, how soon can they be removed from isolation?

Choices:

Removal from respiratory isolation can be done after at least two negative sputum smears done 24 hours apart

Removal from respiratory isolation can be done after at least two negative sputum smears done at least 8 hours apart

Removal from respiratory isolation is possible after 3 consecutive negative smears at least 8 hours apart

Removal from respiratory isolation is possible after 3 consecutive negative smears done 24 hours apart

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