# 3.2 Shifts in demand and supply for goods and services  (Page 4/26)

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Changes in Expectations about Future Prices or Other Factors that Affect Demand

While it is clear that the price of a good affects the quantity demanded, it is also true that expectations about the future price (or expectations about tastes and preferences, income, and so on) can affect demand. For example, if people hear that a hurricane is coming, they may rush to the store to buy flashlight batteries and bottled water. If people learn that the price of a good like coffee is likely to rise in the future, they may head for the store to stock up on coffee now. These changes in demand are shown as shifts in the curve. Therefore, a shift in demand    happens when a change in some economic factor (other than price) causes a different quantity to be demanded at every price. The following Work It Out feature shows how this happens.

## Shift in demand

A shift in demand means that at any price (and at every price), the quantity demanded will be different than it was before. Following is an example of a shift in demand due to an income increase.

Step 1. Draw the graph of a demand curve for a normal good like pizza. Pick a price (like P 0 ). Identify the corresponding Q 0 . An example is shown in [link] .

Step 2. Suppose income increases. As a result of the change, are consumers going to buy more or less pizza? The answer is more. Draw a dotted horizontal line from the chosen price, through the original quantity demanded, to the new point with the new Q 1 . Draw a dotted vertical line down to the horizontal axis and label the new Q 1 . An example is provided in [link] .

Step 3. Now, shift the curve through the new point. You will see that an increase in income causes an upward (or rightward) shift in the demand curve, so that at any price the quantities demanded will be higher, as shown in [link] .

## Summing up factors that change demand

Six factors that can shift demand curves are summarized in [link] . The direction of the arrows indicates whether the demand curve shifts represent an increase in demand or a decrease in demand. Notice that a change in the price of the good or service itself is not listed among the factors that can shift a demand curve. A change in the price of a good or service causes a movement along a specific demand curve, and it typically leads to some change in the quantity demanded, but it does not shift the demand curve.

When a demand curve shifts, it will then intersect with a given supply curve at a different equilibrium price and quantity. We are, however, getting ahead of our story. Before discussing how changes in demand can affect equilibrium price and quantity, we first need to discuss shifts in supply curves.

Compare and contrast between Natural and Artificial Resources and their ultimate impacts in an economy. Give one example to support your discussion.
Exemple: Diamant or uranium, fer, calcaire
how does interest rate affect aggregate output
what is Keynesian theory
kelvin
need a curves for typical isoquost and isoquant
kelvin
what is isoquant
kelvin
isoquat is a curve shows differnt combinations of two inputs which can produce same level of output
Majid
examples of giffen goods
Getrude
then what isoquost
Peter
, if the price of an essential food staple, such as rice, rises it may mean that consumers have less money to buy more expensive foods, so they will actually be forced to buy more rice.
Peter
that's an example
Peter
majid Khan that's the wrong definition of isoquant
The
you are defining isocost
The
isocost curve is a locus of points that shows the different combinations of commodities purchased by a consumer with a fixed budget
The
The change in fiscal policy leads to an increased level of output and interest rates is because an increase in government expenses directly affects aggregate demand. A decline in taxes result in more disposable income, consequently leading to a rise in consumption expenditure.
Peter
dats for kelvin
Peter
dats d answer for the audio how does interest rate affect aggregate output
Peter
question not audio
Peter
u are right joker
Peter
what is journal entry?
Abel
explain the nature of economics
interpret micro economic issues
Matilda
ito ang dami ng producto na nais handa at kanyang ibenta ng isang prodyuser
i dont understand
Gaabshe
even I also don't understand ..this language.. vn I converse everybody say farzana ur language is not understood by all user? now no one there is question about it?
shaikh
he is saying that "this is the amount of product it wants to be ready and sells by a producer"
Aman
I Merr has knowledge,which is the economiccircuit role in a society
What is diminishing returns?
explain competitive demand
the demand that are compiting for sale. the buyer can substitute one for another good
Iftikhar
yg
Margarette
the demand where commodities fight for the market. in this type of demand, commodities can be substituted for the most suitable one subject to ( price, consumers choice, consumers income etc)
WILSON
Demand is said to be competitive when a commodity that is needed to satisfy wants in place of another similar goods. increase in price of a commodity X will result in increase in demand of the substitute (commmodity Y).
yusuf
examples of giffen goods are garri (cassava), maize
what is Public Finance?
it's basically the field of economics that deals with the government's involvement in the economy; from spending to maybe interest rate manipulation, etc.
Matthew
examples of giffen goods
Getrude
i want to get the solutions of problems how i get kindly give guidance
Syeda
hard work
Iftikhar
and the grace of God
The
knowledge skills
MUSA
Syeda Economics is difficult. No all fields are difficult
The
what is Keynesian
AKINOLA
Keynesian economics is the theory proposed by Keynes( an economist). He proposed to manipulate demand side factors to bring economy out of depression in 1930s.
Champro
whose totaly oppossid the government intervention and give importance to agreegad demand
Iftikhar
Good afternoon my fellow forum brothers and sisters
no just want to know true God
Suprim
Good afternoon!!
Martha
hey is there somebody single n young like me bcoz I'm looking for
Suprim
It is giving up a commodity to purchase another commodity
The
for example, when we have two commodities like chicken and turkey you can trade off of give up chicken to purchase turkey
The
that can also be called foregone goods
AKINOLA
it like opportunity cost
AKINOLA
Abdullahi
Do you transform into thesecourses, in french people?
I can just speak french andI can just speak french and no english
what is elastic
elastic is the change in to price and change in demand
ehtesham
Is the percentage change in quantity demand and quantity supply.
Robert
Or percentage change in price of demand and supply
Robert
Right
ehtesham
Robert Mensah you are explaining elasticity of demand
The
robert i think he talk about elastic releated to elasticity of price a proportionate change in price over qd
Iftikhar
can anyone explain what happrn her i don't understand anything
Brahim
is the percentage change in demand as price change
MUSA
sometimes price is elastic,inelastic
The
price elasticity is different from price being elastic
The
elasticity is not always the percentage change in demand as a result of changes in price. there's income elasticity and cross elasticity so it's not necessarily always price
The
elastic is when a change in price of a commodity results in a relatively a larger proportion change in the quantity demand of the commodity
Nancy
what is inelastic
price is said to be inelastic when it is less than 1
The
what is national income accounting
National income is the income earned by all factors of production..
Majid
So this benefits the workers or the businesses?
Neil
Like whose income are we talking about here
Neil
what is multiplier
Khalid
Good & services manufactured in a country with in one year is calld national income
Fani
incom earned by using of sources of production is national income while i dont know the accounting insuch
Iftikhar
neil and aisha can u explain the turm accounting in such question
Iftikhar
I think when we include accounting national income accounting is the measurement of total goods and services produced in an economy in a given period of time
The
what is mutual funds
it is a combination of financial securities such as treasury bills , bonds etc in one managed by an institution that individuals and firms invest in for profit. it is usually a long term investment and is seen as a low risk investment because the financial instruments invested in, are diversified.
Ekeanyanwu
A mutual fund is a professional managed investment that pools money from many investors to invest.
Malik