# 7.2 The structure of costs in the short run  (Page 3/23)

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## Average total cost, average variable cost, marginal cost

The breakdown of total costs into fixed and variable costs can provide a basis for other insights as well. The first five columns of [link] duplicate the previous table, but the last three columns show average total costs, average variable costs, and marginal costs. These new measures analyze costs on a per-unit (rather than a total) basis and are reflected in the curves shown in [link] .

Different types of costs
Labor Quantity Fixed Cost Variable Cost Total Cost Marginal Cost Average Total Cost Average Variable Cost
1 16 \$160 \$80 \$240 \$5.00 \$15.00 \$5.00
2 40 \$160 \$160 \$320 \$3.30 \$8.00 \$4.00
3 60 \$160 \$240 \$400 \$4.00 \$6.60 \$4.00
4 72 \$160 \$320 \$480 \$6.60 \$6.60 \$4.40
5 80 \$160 \$400 \$560 \$10.00 \$7.00 \$5.00
6 84 \$160 \$480 \$640 \$20.00 \$7.60 \$5.70

Average total cost (sometimes referred to simply as average cost) is total cost divided by the quantity of output. Since the total cost of producing 40 haircuts is \$320, the average total cost for producing each of 40 haircuts is \$320/40, or \$8 per haircut. Average cost curves are typically U-shaped, as [link] shows. Average total cost starts off relatively high, because at low levels of output total costs are dominated by the fixed cost; mathematically, the denominator is so small that average total cost is large. Average total cost then declines, as the fixed costs are spread over an increasing quantity of output. In the average cost calculation, the rise in the numerator of total costs is relatively small compared to the rise in the denominator of quantity produced. But as output expands still further, the average cost begins to rise. At the right side of the average cost curve, total costs begin rising more rapidly as diminishing returns kick in.

Average variable cost obtained when variable cost is divided by quantity of output. For example, the variable cost of producing 80 haircuts is \$400, so the average variable cost is \$400/80, or \$5 per haircut. Note that at any level of output, the average variable cost curve will always lie below the curve for average total cost, as shown in [link] . The reason is that average total cost includes average variable cost and average fixed cost. Thus, for Q = 80 haircuts, the average total cost is \$8 per haircut, while the average variable cost is \$5 per haircut. However, as output grows, fixed costs become relatively less important (since they do not rise with output), so average variable cost sneaks closer to average cost.

why is the marginal curve u shaped
which of marginal curve?
begyere
marginal cost curve
jake
what is demand function
demand function is the mathematical representation of price and quantity demanded of goods and services at various prices at a given time .
King
Demand function is an equation which shows the mathematical relationship between the quantity demanded of a good and the values of the various determinants of demand.
Bon
why would division of labour without trade not work
as far there is an output as a goal... trade can't be exempted... because the sole reason for division of labour is for an effective and efficient output or outcome.. with such exchange trade has taken place. .
Agha-Aiguokhian
rakia
what is the features of monopoly market? how it is different from monopolistic market?
alisha
how does scarcity described as the efficient byway to allocate resources in a free market?
scarcity gives or births a rational thinking to an individual or state economy in the distribution of revenue or income to the right channels of their ends... assuming the market has the features of a free market (free entry and exit, close substitutes, market price control etc)
Agha-Aiguokhian
wath is the meaning the macro economics
What is the way out of Scarcity
Samuel
a state referenced economic study, the manner or behavioural pattern of a state choice in making economic decisions in satisfying their ends
Agha-Aiguokhian
Thanks brother
Samuel
what is macro economics
Balogun
is the study of a national economy as a whole
Rhoda
thanks
Balogun
what is micro economics
Balogun
micro is not the study of the entire economy as a whole. that is macro economics.
Brock
micro focuses more on decisions that individuals and firms make but also uses examples of countries regarding production.
Brock
I think is why some people get mixed up.
Brock
thanks a lot
Balogun
yes ,I think that is right
rene
how would you use budget constraints to explain trade off?
begyere
what is the difference between wants and needs as in economics
rene
wants may be unlimited but needs have the limit on the base of effort to pay.
Dambar
who n who is d founder of economic. txn
Ojo
adam smith is the founder of modern economics but previous than we can read ununified economic thought of kautilya and others.
Dambar
thanx very much
rene
In economic, the idea of survival is real, meaning someone would die with out the needs being met.This includes things like food, water, and shelter. A wants, in economic, is one step up in the order from needs and is simply something that people desire to have, that they may, or may not, obtain.
Richlyn
when total utility is constant, marginal utility do what?
Why is it that whenever I ask a question no one hears me out
Dominic
😊😊
This is deals with only 1producer 1producer 1consumer
Oligopoly
Gh
Qaasim
Motasay
nothing only I study
Qaasim
still oligopoly That is when there is a limited buyer and seller in the industry. There are no perfectly elastic market entry, that is for both the price taker and the seller
Gh
Qaasim
welcomed bro
Gh
we can ask our doubt also isn't
Rohit
Yea you can as well
Gh
Like "beauty opportunity cost lies in the eyes of the beholder"discuss with practical examples
Dominic
Criticism of scarcity definition
life is all about scarcity. there is a big reason behind that
Hassan
tell me the whole
No
as we are Muslims
Hassan
so what
No
we believe that our Allah. the God of Universe is Examining each and every one on the planet this Scarcity. the only place there is no scarcity is Aakhiro Doomsday
Hassan
i want Explanation ?
No
theory
No
You have came back our book of Quran
Hassan
Make some of our basic needs not available. For example like if we need a particular drugs to cure a virus ohh disease because if the scarcity of it it may lead to death
Motasay
what men gdb
with men government demand price
Jimcaale
how to draw demand curve
What are the distinction between trade off and opportunity cost?
what is monopoly
What are the sources of monopoly
Mary
Sources of Monopoly Power Monopoly power is influenced by the following factors: Barriers to entry Number of competitors Advertising Degree of product differentiation The larger and more expensive the barriers to entry the greater the monopoly power The smaller the number of competitors in th
edward
monopoly occurs when specific enterprise supplies goods and controls the market.
i think the sources of monopoly are barriers to enrty and product differentiation.
Monopoly is a market structure characterized by a single seller, selling a unique product in the market in which s/he faces no competition, as s/he is the sole seller of goods with no close substitute.
edward
Monopoly is a market structure where the production of goods and services coupled with price determination of such commodities are left in the hands of a sole producer. Such factors are; Perfectly inelastic competition, High market barricade, High cost of raw materials,
Gh
what is price discrimination monopoly
Charging different sets of consumers different prirces for the same good or service, for reasons not involved in cost of production. There are 3 degrees of price discrimination.
Darren
what are the 3 degree
obed
hello
Oparaugo
What up guys
Divine
what are four sources of monopoly
examples of what cause demand and supply to shift to the left.
hello
hi
Yaman
how are you
Yaman
are you fine
Yaman
hii
Liya
Why is there a trade off between inflation and employment? Give a situation to clear it up please
Kurt