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  • UHT pasteurization method of pasteurization that exposes milk to ultra-high temperatures (near 140 °C) for a few seconds, effectively sterilizing it so that it can be sealed and stored for long periods without refrigeration
  • ulcer open sore
  • ultramicrotome a device that cuts thin sections for electron microscopy
  • unit membrane biological membrane composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called lipid bilayer
  • unsaturated fatty acid lipid with hydrocarbon chains containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds and subsequently fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per chain
  • uracil pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in RNA nucleotides
  • ureter duct that transports urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
  • ureteritis inflammation of the ureter
  • urethra duct through which urine passes from the urinary bladder to leave the body through the urinary meatus
  • urethritis inflammation of the urethra
  • urinary bladder an organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted
  • urinary meatus the opening through which urine leaves the body
  • use-dilution test a technique for determining the effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant on a surface; involves dipping a surface in a culture of the targeted microorganism, disinfecting the surface, and then transferring the surface to a fresh medium to see if bacteria will grow
  • uterus female reproductive organ in which a fertilized egg implants and develops


  • vaccination inoculation of a patient with attenuated pathogens or antigens to activate adaptive immunity and protect against infection
  • vagina female reproductive organ that extends from the vulva to the cervix
  • vaginitis inflammation of the vagina
  • vaginosis an infection of the vagina caused by overgrowth of resident bacteria
  • vancomycin cell wall synthesis inhibitor of the glycopeptide class
  • vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) pathogen with intermediate vancomycin resistance due to increased targets for and trapping of vancomycin in the outer cell wall
  • vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) pathogens resistant to vancomycin through a target modification of peptidoglycan subunit peptides that inhibit binding by vancomycin
  • vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) pathogen with resistance to vancomycin that has arisen as a result of the horizontal gene transfer of vancomycin resistance genes from VRE
  • variolation the historical practice of inoculating a healthy patient with infectious material from a person infected with smallpox in order to promote immunity to the disease
  • vas deferens pair of ducts in the male reproductive system that conduct sperm from the testes and seminal fluid to the ejaculatory duct
  • vasculitis inflammation affecting blood vessels (either arteries or veins)
  • VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test test for syphilis that detects anti-treponemal antibodies to the phospholipids produced due to the tissue destruction by Treponema pallidum ; antibodies are detected through a flocculation reaction with cardiolipin extracted from beef heart tissue
  • vector animal (typically an arthropod) that transmits a pathogen from one host to another host; DNA molecules that carry DNA fragments from one organism to another
  • vegetative cell a cell that is actively growing and dividing, and does not contain an endospore
  • vehicle transmission transfer of a pathogen between hosts via contaminated food, water, or air
  • vein blood vessel that returns blood from the tissues to the heart for recirculation
  • vertical direct transmission transfer of a pathogen from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding
  • vertical gene transfer transfer of genes from parent to offspring
  • viable cell live cell; live cells are usually detected as colony-forming units
  • viable plate count direct method of measuring microbial growth in a culture; the number of viable or live cells is usually expressed in CFU/mL
  • viral conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by a viral infection
  • viral envelope lipid membrane obtained from phospholipid membranes of the cell that surrounds the capsid
  • viral hemagglutination inhibition assay assay used to quantify the amount of neutralizing antibody against a virus by showing a decrease in hemagglutination caused by a standardized amount of virus
  • viral titer number of virions per unit volume
  • viremia presence of virus in blood
  • viricide chemical or physical treatment that destroys or inactivates viruses
  • virion inert particle that is the reproductive form of a virus
  • viroid infectious plant pathogen composed of RNA
  • virology the study of viruses
  • virulence degree to which an organism is pathogenic; severity of disease signs and symptoms
  • virulence factor product of a pathogen that assists in its ability to cause infection and disease
  • virulent phage bacteriophage for which infection leads to the death of the host cell; a phage that undergoes the lytic cycle
  • virus an acellular microorganism, consisting of proteins and genetic material (DNA or RNA), that can replicate itself by infecting a host cell
  • virusoid small piece of RNA associated with larger RNA of some infectious plant viruses
  • volutin inclusions of polymerized inorganic phosphate; also called metachromatic granules
  • vulva the female external genitalia


  • water activity water content of foods or other materials
  • wavelength the distance between one peak of a wave and the next peak
  • Weil’s disease advanced stage of leptospirosis in which the kidney and liver become seriously infected
  • West African trypanosomiasis chronic form of African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
  • West Nile encephalitis mosquito-borne disease caused by the West Nile virus (WNV) that can result in swelling of the brain and death in severe cases
  • western blot technique used to detect the presence of a certain protein within a given protein sample in which proteins within the sample are separated by PAGE, immobilized on a membrane, and then exposed first to an antibody that binds to the protein of interest and then second to an antibody equipped with a molecular beacon that will bind to the first antibody
  • western equine encephalitis serious but rare mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is found primarily in the central and western United States
  • wet mount a slide preparation technique in which a specimen is placed on the slide in a drop of liquid
  • wheal-flare reaction localized type I hypersensitivity reaction, involving a raised, itchy bump (wheal) and redness (flare), to injected allergen
  • whooping cough common name for pertussis
  • wild type phenotype of an organism that is most commonly observed in nature
  • Winterbottom’s sign acute swelling of lymph nodes at the back of the neck that is an early sign of African trypanosomiasis
  • wobble position third position of a codon that, when changed, typically results in the incorporation of the same amino acid because of the degeneracy of the genetic code
  • World Health Organization (WHO) international public health organization within the United Nations; monitors and communicates international public health information and coordinates international public health programs and emergency interventions


  • xenobiotic compound synthesized by humans and introduced to an environment in much higher concentrations than expected in nature
  • xenograft transplanted tissue from a donor that is of a different species than the recipient
  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia genetic disorder resulting in an inability to produce antibodies
  • x-y mechanical stage knobs knobs on a microscope that are used to adjust the position of the specimen on the stage surface, generally to center it directly above the light


  • yeast any unicellular fungus
  • yeast infection fungal infection of the vagina typically caused by an overgrowth of resident Candida spp.
  • yellow fever mild to potentially fatal mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus


  • Ziehl-Neelsen technique a method of acid-fast staining that uses heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  • zone of inhibition clear zone around a filter disk impregnated with an antimicrobial drug, indicating growth inhibition due to the antimicrobial drug
  • zoonosis see zoonotic disease
  • zoonotic disease any disease that is transmitted to humans by animals
  • zooplankton heterotrophic plankton
  • Z-scheme electron flow seen in noncyclic photophosphorylation in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria due to the use of both PSI and PSII
  • zygospores spores used by Zygomycetes for sexual reproduction; they have hard walls formed from the fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals

Questions & Answers

define polar bond in simple way
Rashmi Reply
Hi everyone, is these site only about microbiology? I want a site which I can download articles on hematological and biochemical profile
Peter Reply
I think it is only about micro biology.
so whats happening
I am about to enter school and am going for MCB
Olugbenga Reply
What is DNA damage and repair
Sree Reply
removal of nucleotide bases from DNA is damage n addition or insertion of bases in DNA is repair.
replication is a term related to generation of new DNA from a parental DNA.
role of microorganism as pathogens
Parteek Reply
to live inside the host body, reproduction n destroy the immune system of host body.
what is replication
please give me ans
replication is a term related to generation of new DNA from parental DNA.
difference between endotoxin and exotoxin
Binkheir Reply
toxins released inside the cell or a body is endotoxin n toxins released outside the cell or a body is exotoxin.
please I want the names of bacteria and the diseases they cause.
Ibrahim Reply
there are many we classify it according to their shapes gram negative or gram positive
so u may refer the book u guess or by when u want I can do a list for you and send u here
please do a list for me
I have the lost but it's too much to type ..
MSc entrance prepare books and questions LA etha base pani irukum..
Guhan Reply
kushal always prescott is the imp book to follow.search some objective mcqs books based on your syllabus
deepthi Reply
I want to clear entrance of ms university so I have no more idea so my preparation is based on my bachlor studies.
what are the opportunistic infection in aids stage
certain cancer or pneumonia 🤔
penicillium crysogenum
Kushal Reply
salam am also studying microbiology in university of Ilorin
Abubakar Reply
Salam am studying physiotherapy in bayaro university kano
Walaikum salam
Hw u
HRU frinds
any good reference for oncology?!!!!
Pankaj Reply
K.D tripathi
what is the microbiology
Fadumo Reply
it is the study of microorganisms
microorganis means
the organism can not be seen by eyes they can be seen with the help of microscope
microbiology is the study of microorganism and microorganism are such as bacteria ,parasite, viruses and fungi and etc.. those are cant be seen with asked eyes and can be seen with help of microscope . I hope this helps you
what is virology
Bismarck Reply
the study of viruses
what is myrology
myrology or mycology?
the study of fungi.
Mycology study fungi
study of viruses
what are the major topics that you cover under micro biology
Bismarck Reply
identification n application of microorganisms

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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