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Natural chemical food preservatives

The discovery of natural antimicrobial substances produced by other microbes has added to the arsenal of preservatives used in food. Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis and is particularly effective against gram-positive organisms. Nisin works by disrupting cell wall production, leaving cells more prone to lysis. It is used to preserve cheeses, meats, and beverages.

Natamycin is an antifungal macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis . It was approved by the FDA in 1982 and is used to prevent fungal growth in various types of dairy products, including cottage cheese, sliced cheese, and shredded cheese. Natamycin is also used for meat preservation in countries outside the United States.

  • What are the advantages and drawbacks of using sulfites and nitrites as food preservatives?

Key concepts and summary

  • Heavy metals , including mercury, silver, copper, and zinc, have long been used for disinfection and preservation, although some have toxicity and environmental risks associated with them.
  • Halogens , including chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, are also commonly used for disinfection. Chlorine compounds, including sodium hypochlorite , chloramines , and chlorine dioxide , are commonly used for water disinfection. Iodine, in both tincture and iodophor forms, is an effective antiseptic.
  • Alcohols , including ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, are commonly used antiseptics that act by denaturing proteins and disrupting membranes.
  • Phenolics are stable, long-acting disinfectants that denature proteins and disrupt membranes. They are commonly found in household cleaners, mouthwashes, and hospital disinfectants, and are also used to preserve harvested crops.
  • The phenolic compound triclosan , found in antibacterial soaps, plastics, and textiles is technically an antibiotic because of its specific mode of action of inhibiting bacterial fatty-acid synthesis..
  • Surfactants , including soaps and detergents, lower the surface tension of water to create emulsions that mechanically carry away microbes. Soaps are long-chain fatty acids, whereas detergents are synthetic surfactants.
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds ( quats ) are cationic detergents that disrupt membranes. They are used in household cleaners, skin disinfectants, oral rinses, and mouthwashes.
  • Bisbiguanides disrupt cell membranes, causing cell contents to gel. Chlorhexidine and alexidine are commonly used for surgical scrubs, for handwashing in clinical settings, and in prescription oral rinses.
  • Alkylating agents effectively sterilize materials at low temperatures but are carcinogenic and may also irritate tissue. Glutaraldehyde and o-phthalaldehyde are used as hospital disinfectants but not as antiseptics. Formaldehyde is used for the storage of tissue specimens, as an embalming fluid, and in vaccine preparation to inactivate infectious agents. Ethylene oxide is a gas sterilant that can permeate heat-sensitive packaged materials, but it is also explosive and carcinogenic.
  • Peroxygens , including hydrogen peroxide , peracetic acid , benzoyl peroxide , and ozone gas, are strong oxidizing agents that produce free radicals in cells, damaging their macromolecules. They are environmentally safe and are highly effective disinfectants and antiseptics.
  • Pressurized carbon dioxide in the form of a supercritical fluid easily permeates packaged materials and cells, forming carbonic acid and lowering intracellular pH. Supercritical carbon dioxide is nonreactive, nontoxic, nonflammable, and effective at low temperatures for sterilization of medical devices, implants, and transplanted tissues.
  • Chemical preservatives are added to a variety of foods. Sorbic acid , benzoic acid , propionic acid , and their more soluble salts inhibit enzymes or reduce intracellular pH.
  • Sulfites are used in winemaking and food processing to prevent browning of foods.
  • Nitrites are used to preserve meats and maintain color, but cooking nitrite-preserved meats may produce carcinogenic nitrosamines.
  • Nisin and natamycin are naturally produced preservatives used in cheeses and meats. Nisin is effective against gram-positive bacteria and natamycin against fungi.

Fill in the blank

Doorknobs and other surfaces in clinical settings are often coated with ________, ________, or ________ to prevent the transmission of microbes.

copper, nickel, zinc

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True/false

Soaps are classified as disinfectants.

False

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Mercury-based compounds have fallen out of favor for use as preservatives and antiseptics.

True

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Short answer

Which solution of ethyl alcohol is more effective at inhibiting microbial growth: a 70% solution or a 100% solution? Why?

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When might a gas treatment be used to control microbial growth instead of autoclaving? What are some examples?

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What is the advantage of using an iodophor rather than iodine or an iodine tincture?

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Questions & Answers

what is prokaryotes
PRALHAD Reply
are micro-organisms that have no nucleus e.g bacteria
Foster
and they do not possess membrane bound organelles e.g mitochondria
Bharat
yes
Foster
they are single cellular organisms,
Rajasekhar
all the organelles are embedded in cytoplasm of the cell
Rajasekhar
They don't possess true nucleus
PREMI
they're unicellular organisms
Kamaluddeen
they are classified as bacteria and. archaea. bacteria have a cell membrane conposed of peptidoglycan and archaea is composed of psuedomu
Tara
pseudomurein
Tara
organelles are non membraneous as the nucleus
Tara
What is the biosynthesis of a bacteria cell
Adesina Reply
biosynthesis is multiple step enzymes catalyze process which occur in bacterial cell
Jayeeta
biological way of manufacturing food and utilizes it for growth, multiplication and development
Kamaluddeen
prokaryot
PRALHAD
what is microbiology
Kiirya Reply
which organism can not be seen necked eyes is knowm as microbiology
meet
microorganisms
Jayeeta
micro can be define as d smallest living organisms dat can not be see wit naked eyes only with the aid of a microscope 🔬
muhammed
bio means life logy means study
muhammed
biology can b define as the systematic study of living things
muhammed
microbiology can be define as the study of tiny organisms, that's according to my understanding
muhammed
Microbiology is the study of living organisms which cannot be seen by the naked eye but only with the aid of a microscope. These microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, fungi, micro-algae, protozoa and virus.
Tatz
microbes that can't seen in naked eyes. upto 100micrometer we can see in naked eyes but 1 microns or nanometers are invisible in naked eye.
Jayeeta
what is a cell
Oteri Reply
cell can be define as smallest indivisible organism in the body
muhammed
cell is the smallest unit which makes up the whole body
Yue
cell is smallest unit and there are two types prokaryotic cell and eukaryote cell. bacteria a prokaryotic cell which works independently.
Jayeeta
nice forum
muhammed
Which parasite competes with the host for vitamin B12 to cause pernicious anaemia
Abubakar
Diphyllobothrium latum for vit B12
Jayeeta
it is also fish tapeworm
Jayeeta
Diphyllobothrium sp feed vitB 12
Jayeeta
recent trends in microbiology of biofertilizer
Ykomalipriya Reply
using nano technology
Jayeeta
what is transposors
EMMANUEL Reply
Junk DNA, jumping gene.
Pradeep
transposon elements are jumping gene as DNA sequence move from one location to anothet
Jayeeta
Yes
Pradeep
what is microbiology
Usama Reply
Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions.
digvijaya
what is gram +ve and gram - ve bacteria?
Sharma
gm- contain lipid layer so it take counter stain during gram staining and pink or red in color but gm + does have thick LPS layer.
Jayeeta
what year microbiology started
Kartik
Robert Koch was the first to detect microorganisms
Jayeeta
what appears microorganisms
Kartik
clear the questions please
Jayeeta
was it robert koch or robert hooke?
digvijaya
microbiology word came from microns. study microbes that not recognize in naked eyes.
Jayeeta
what are the branch of microbiology
Oyemade Reply
We can basically classify into pure and applied microbiology
Ozzie
what is arabinose operon and it's stucture
Pooja Reply
The L-arabinose operon, also called the ara or araBAD operon, is an operon required for the breakdown of the five-carbon sugar, L-arabinose, in Escherichia coli
Tharra
kya hum operon ko divide kar skate hain
Kartik
reactions if viruses to physical and chemical agents?
VICTOR Reply
All viruses contain the following two components: 1) a nucleic acid genome and 2) a protein capsid that covers the genome. Together this is called the nucleocapsid. In addition, many animal viruses contain a 3) lipid envelope. The entire intact virus is called the virion.
Asali
assume you have performed a gram stain on a sample of pus from a patients urethra. you see red, nucleated cells and purple rods. what can you conclude
Petty Reply
bacteria
ABUBAKAR
gram negative bacteria hence gonococcal infection
Kiirya
Study of micro organisation which we cannot see with naked eye...
shyam Reply
Despite their bad reputation, microbes are mostly beneficial or have a neutral effect on our lives. Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Asali
yes
Dhirender
not 'things'...'organisms' like bacterias, viruses and fungi
Sinmi
simi, it's not bacterias but bacteria which is the plural form of the word while bacterium is the singular of it
Richard
bacterium is obvio in a singular form but plural of bacterium is bacterias
Sinmi
Richard is right it's bacterium which is the singular form and plural is bacteria. *Bacterias* doesn't exist.
Aakriti
that is microbiology which is deals with microbes only their structure
Kiirya
what is microbiology?
Sandeep Reply
what is microbiology
Glory
is the study of small microorganisms that can't be viewed by our naked eyes under a microscope
Nabukwasi
it's the study of microbes their classification, diversity, their cellular structure and processes, their applications and interaction with other organisms.
Chaitanya
what is EMP pathway
rajesh
which organism is implicated in meningoencephalitis
Peter Reply
Herpes virus
Carlos
Yeah
Laxmi
which mold is called dairy mold?
Gopinath
mushroomm
Top
Geotrichum candidum
Gopinath
hi
bio
Hlw
Laxmi
which infectious agent is the smallest
Sinmi
spore or virus
Anushree
prion ....it is a single protein in a misfolded form..there is also a theory based on it
Sinmi
yup...m sry
Anushree
yes it can be turned as a virus
Sinmi
which gram positive bacteria is responsible for food poisoning?
Sinmi
prion is not a living organism yet it is infectoois why
Jeevan
prions are virus like organism. and it is a misfolded protein that may cause disease to us.
Tharra
Clostridium perfringens, B.cereus
Sneha
Who is the father of the biology
Dhirender
I have one more question. . that who is the father of botany and medicine? ? can any one tell
Dhirender
define polar bond in simple way
Rashmi Reply
when there is formation of positive and negative poles i.e. one atom is +ve and other is -ve which further results in the dipole moment. Such bond is know as polar bond. It is a convalent bond only.
Aakriti

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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