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Eye with yellow discharge.
Acute, purulent, bacterial conjunctivitis causes swelling and redness in the conjunctiva, the membrane lining the whites of the eyes and the inner eyelids. It is often accompanied by a yellow, green, or white discharge, which can dry and become encrusted on the eyelashes. (credit: “Tanalai”/Wikimedia Commons)

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Newborns whose mothers have certain sexually transmitted infections are at risk of contracting ophthalmia neonatorum or inclusion conjunctivitis , which are two forms of neonatal conjunctivitis contracted through exposure to pathogens during passage through the birth canal. Gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the bacterium that causes the STD gonorrhea ( [link] ). Inclusion (chlamydial) conjunctivitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis , the anaerobic, obligate, intracellular parasite that causes the STD chlamydia .

To prevent gonoccocal ophthalmia neonatorum, silver nitrate ointments were once routinely applied to all infants’ eyes shortly after birth; however, it is now more common to apply antibacterial creams or drops, such as erythromycin . Most hospitals are required by law to provide this preventative treatment to all infants, because conjunctivitis caused by N. gonorrhoeae , C. trachomatis, or other bacteria acquired during a vaginal delivery can have serious complications. If untreated, the infection can spread to the cornea, resulting in ulceration or perforation that can cause vision loss or even permanent blindness. As such, neonatal conjunctivitis is treated aggressively with oral or intravenous antibiotics to stop the spread of the infection. Causative agents of inclusion conjunctivitis may be identified using bacterial cultures, Gram stain, and diagnostic biochemical, antigenic, or nucleic acid profile tests.

Swollen eyes with discharge.
A newborn suffering from gonoccocal opthalmia neonatorum. Left untreated, purulent discharge can scar the cornea, causing loss of vision or permanent blindness. (credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Compare and contrast bacterial conjunctivitis with neonatal conjunctivitis.


Trachoma , or granular conjunctivitis , is a common cause of preventable blindness that is rare in the United States but widespread in developing countries, especially in Africa and Asia. The condition is caused by the same species that causes neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis in infants, Chlamydia trachomatis . C. trachomatis can be transmitted easily through fomites such as contaminated towels, bed linens, and clothing and also by direct contact with infected individuals. C. trachomatis can also be spread by flies that transfer infected mucous containing C. trachomatis from one human to another.

Infection by C. trachomatis causes chronic conjunctivitis , which leads to the formation of necrotic follicles and scarring in the upper eyelid. The scars turn the eyelashes inward (a condition known as trichiasis ) and mechanical abrasion of the cornea leads to blindness ( [link] ). Antibiotics such as azithromycin are effective in treating trachoma, and outcomes are good when the disease is treated promptly. In areas where this disease is common, large public health efforts are focused on reducing transmission by teaching people how to avoid the risks of the infection.

Questions & Answers

Explain about enzyme transportation
Shahla Reply
Enzyme transportation
it looks reallllyyyyy coooooooollll. i love enzymes theyre so cooll and i also like protein transportation so i think it would be really cool so an enzyme transport something so ill do some research and come back to ya in that
what is the infectious disease process
Patience Reply
what are differences between endotoxins and exotoxins
sabote Reply
endo toxins work in the nuceus. i think
tell me if im right tho
Exotoxins are toxic substances secreted by bacteria and released outside the cell. Both gram positive and gram negative bacteria can produce and secrete exotoxins. Whereas Endotoxins are bacterial toxins consisting of lipids that are located within a cell. Only lysed gram negatives.
Remebr the Lipid A portion of LPS is what's toxic.
oh yeah. thanks
Your welcome :)
How did you learn this?
For me personally the best book is 'microbiology made ridiculously simple'
I got my basics from there and slowly added information from other sources.
thats cool! yeah i like microbiology too! especially the molecular proteins theyre sooooooooooo cool!
what are the prokaryotic
Lungu Reply
prokaraytotic is a unicellular organizm that lacks membrane bound nucleus
and whats eukaryotic
eukaryotic cell are cell which contain anuclues and organells
eukaryotes are the cells that have organells which are protected by membranes
eukaryotic is are multicellular organisms which are open nucleus.
Explain on the Francisco reddi did to prove the theory of spontaneous generation
Diana Reply
what is parasite
Abdirizack Reply
parasite are organisms feeds on a host for food and survival.e.g round worm for animal, Dodder for plant parasites.
parasite are organisms that feeds on a host for food and survival.e.g round worm for animal and mistletoe for plant parasites.
parasite are organisms that feed on their host
designing of aseptic area
Aashish Reply
I don't know
what is rickettsia
what is microbiology
Is the science that works with microorganisms.
richettsa is small microorganisms that cause disease in human like typhus; they are like viruses that can grow only inside living cells, they're transmitted by mites, ticks or lices.
what is plasmid?
plasmid is extra chromosomal body present in bacteria...which have additional genetic functions example... antibiotic resistance genes....etc etc
state the theory of spontaneous generation of micro oranisms and germ theory of disease
what are the advantages of high note numerical aperture
Genius Reply
list if non flagellated pritozoa
Mepung Reply
Can someone that's understanding of the Kreb Cycle please explain & breakdown it down to me in the simplest way without giving me the dictionary version or Google version. Basically in there own words of knowledge....!
please can someone help explain positive and negative feedback in simple term
negative feedback is the arresting of reaction or reverse of the reaction according to the response and postive feed back is the direct response without reversing or arresting a reaction.
pls can someone explained Kinney stone in memorising in shot time
what tyoebif microorganism will be killed by antibiotic trwatmeant
Mary Reply
I don't really don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone explain & breakdown this in the simplest way please.
Anaerobic Respiration in which foodstuffs are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen, such as alcoholic fermentation, in which one of the end products is ethanol.
aerobic respiration A type of respiration in which foodstuffs are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of chemical energy, in a process requiring atmospheric oxygen.
please can someone explain what pseudomonas species and biofilm is?
Fermentation is the growth of cells or microorganisms in bioreactors (fermenters) to synthesize special products. Fermentation in biochemistry refers to the biodegradation of carbon compounds by cells or organisms under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.
Please under which conditions does pathogens become established in the human tissues and can cause diseases
please the life cycle of plasmodium parasite
who is John Needham
Mary Reply
John Needham is one of the researcher in microbiology. He also experimented when scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously ,but did believe microbes could.
okay is he late
by the way what are the list of courses offered by a newly admitted student for microbiology
Needham's experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plants material reinforced this idea.
what drugs are given to a person with Otis nerve problem(ear problem)
Gum Reply
good morning to you all.
Muhammad Reply
Dr.A.K.S.P.G. college Akbarpur Ambedkar Nagar
Shailesh Vishwakarma BSc 1st year
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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