<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Epidemic typhus has played an important role in human history, causing large outbreaks with high mortality rates during times of war or adversity. During World War I , epidemic typhus killed more than 3 million people on the Eastern front. Drali, R., Brouqui, P. and Raoult, D. “Typhus in World War I.” Microbiology Today 41 (2014) 2:58–61. With the advent of effective insecticides and improved personal hygiene, epidemic typhus is now quite rare in the US. In the developing world, however, epidemics can lead to mortality rates of up to 40% in the absence of treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book . Oxford University Press, 2013. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2016/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rickettsial-spotted-typhus-fevers-related-infections-anaplasmosis-ehrlichiosis. Accessed July 26, 2016. In recent years, most outbreaks have taken place in Burundi, Ethiopia, and Rwanda. For example, an outbreak in Burundi refugee camps in 1997 resulted in 45,000 illnesses in a population of about 760,000 people. World Health Organization. “Typhus.” 1997. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs162/en/. Accessed July 26, 2016.

A rapid diagnosis is difficult because of the similarity of the primary symptoms with those of many other diseases. Molecular and immunohistochemical diagnostic tests are the most useful methods for establishing a diagnosis during the acute stage of illness when therapeutic decisions are critical. PCR to detect distinctive genes from R. prowazekii can be used to confirm the diagnosis of epidemic typhus, along with immunofluorescent staining of tissue biopsy specimens. Serology is usually used to identify rickettsial infections. However, adequate antibody titers take up to 10 days to develop. Antibiotic therapy is typically begun before the diagnosis is complete. The most common drugs used to treat patients with epidemic typhus are doxycycline or chloramphenicol .

Murine (endemic) typhus

Murine typhus (also known as endemic typhus) is caused by Rickettsia typhi and is transmitted by the bite of the rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis , with infected rats as the main reservoir. Clinical signs and symptoms of murine typhus include a rash and chills accompanied by headache and fever that last about 12 days. Some patients also exhibit a cough and pneumonia-like symptoms. Severe illness can develop in immunocompromised patients, with seizures, coma, and renal and respiratory failure.

Clinical diagnosis of murine typhus can be confirmed from a biopsy specimen from the rash. Diagnostic tests include indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining, PCR for R. typhi , and acute and convalescent serologic testing. Primary treatment is doxycycline , with chloramphenicol as the second choice.

Rocky mountain spotted fever

The disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is transmitted by the bite of a hard-bodied tick such as the American dog tick ( Dermacentor variabilis ), Rocky Mountain wood tick ( D. andersoni ), or brown dog tick ( Rhipicephalus sanguineus ).

Questions & Answers

What are the five types of serological tests used to identify microorganism in the laboratory?
Prudence Reply
what is mycobacteria
Taslim Reply
what is gram staining
Nankya Reply
microbiology?
Bekka
It's technique to differentiate bacterial species.The method is discovered by Hans Christian Gram. The bacteria is differentiated as gram positive and gram negative on the basis of peptidoglycan layer which is present in cell wall. The gram positive have peptidoglycan layer.
shamali
What is study of morphology ? and it's classification
Maryam
taxonomy
Kamaluddeen
define the microbes
Saro
word microbes from microns.
Jayeeta
who is the father of microbiology?
Deborah
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
shamali
what makes a student to forget what he or she has been taught with easily and how can he or she cope up with it
Samson Reply
to be in touch with subject will help to cope up with the learning life long and also interest matters for subject
shriya
Constant review. And don't worry if you do forget something you always have the option to study it again. Each time you study a certain topic the more it make sense and the more it becomes something natural rather than brute memorization.
Abdi
the cause are many 1.lack of interest . 2. poor attitude to the subject. how can he cope up 1. falling in love with the subject . 2. making it part of you at all times and having determination
Ikilai
understanding the concept and relating whatever course of study with something in his/her day to day activities (i.e in which you are more conversant with in your life).
Kamaluddeen
how many types of cross matching method
umesh
which disease is caused by vicera zoster virus
Timaka Reply
chicken pox
Osuoha
Patients with disseminated herpes zostermay present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In immunocompetent individuals herpes zoster usually is a localised illness, affecting the skin of one or two adjacent dermatomes.
Kamaluddeen
Actually, it is severe abdominal pain thanks
Osuoha
what causes inflammation of the lung?
Samson
what causes the fungi infection of the vigina
Estar Reply
what causes the fungi infection of the vagina?
Estar
poor hygiene of the area and unprotected sex with infected partner
Kamaluddeen
poor hygiene,some times having sex with infected person or when normal flora enters in the vagina
Ikilai
unprotected sex and poor hygiene are the major but keep in mind that there are some other minor causes also
Samson
what brings about dirt in blood
Sumaiyah Reply
So many factors might be the cause viz. Defects of blood capillaries and certain organs like the liver, the kidneys e.t.c
MOHAMMED
with the above any infection of the body easily enters the bloodstream.
MOHAMMED
there may be fevers which cause septicemia
Ikilai
even taking drug, and eating junk foods .
Ikilai
drinking contaminated water and taking drugs which contains chemical and afterwards they gets absorbed in yo the blood stream
Samson
write a essay about gene library's
anaparthi Reply
Structure of bacteria
Maggy Reply
Outline the classification of viruses according to morphology, nucleic acid, type of diseases, antigenic reaction
chilufya Reply
who is da father of microbiology
Mukomya Reply
Lucie pasture
Felicity
Father of microbiology is Anton von Leuuwenhoek
Anshika
mean Luice pasture the father of microbiology
Felicity
Luice pasture is the father of industrial microbiology
Anshika
who is the father of surgery
Talemwa
father of surgery is Sushruta
Agyekum
sushruta is the father of surgery
Ven.phumie
he Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
who is the father of medical microbiology
Naveen
he is Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
Anthony van Lee wen hook
Kamaluddeen
where would we be without microbes
Jessa Reply
nowhere because our body alone also contain billions of microbes.
Edward
in the dreams
Abid
Bangladeshi people's body contain thrice the amount of microbes than regular people.
IamTheMegaExploder
sure?
Kamaluddeen
yah
Kamran
why it was like that
Mمهazn
no where
Mukomya
cocci which are arranged in pairs are called?
umesh
diplococci
vijaya
Cocci are bacterias
Anshika
fimbriae is an organ of ?
umesh
what is the choma like vrius?
PRALHAD
Vibrio cholarea
Kamaluddeen
outline the classification of viruses
chilufya
Fimbriae z an organ of bacteria
Maggy
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the father of micro biology
Yang
concept of primary& secondary metabolism
yamini Reply
who is the father of microbiology
imran Reply
Louis pasture is a father of modern microbiology
Bharat
anton van leuwen kook
Kavi
anton van is father of ancient microbiolgy
Bharat
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Bharat
g
Red
Louis pasture
Atar
what can cause serious stomachache after treating ulcer and typhoid and symptoms persist to leave.
Ven.phumie
Anthony van
Nankya
what is lumbar puncture
amulya Reply
To get the cerespinalfluid
Alphonsia

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask