<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Rna interference technology

In Structure and Function of RNA , we described the function of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. In addition to these types of RNA, cells also produce several types of small noncoding RNA molecules that are involved in the regulation of gene expression. These include antisense RNA molecules, which are complementary to regions of specific mRNA molecules found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells. Non-coding RNA molecules play a major role in RNA interference (RNAi) , a natural regulatory mechanism by which mRNA molecules are prevented from guiding the synthesis of proteins. RNA interference of specific genes results from the base pairing of short, single-stranded antisense RNA molecules to regions within complementary mRNA molecules, preventing protein synthesis. Cells use RNA interference to protect themselves from viral invasion, which may introduce double-stranded RNA molecules as part of the viral replication process ( [link] ).

A eukaryotic cell transcribes a region of DNA into mrNA. Antisense mRNA then binds to the this mRNA to produce a double stranded region. This region is not translated (which means that ribosomes do not bind to the mRNA to produce proteins).
Cells like the eukaryotic cell shown in this diagram commonly make small antisense RNA molecules with sequences complementary to specific mRNA molecules. When an antisense RNA molecule is bound to an mRNA molecule, the mRNA can no longer be used to direct protein synthesis. (credit: modification of work by Robinson R)

Researchers are currently developing techniques to mimic the natural process of RNA interference as a way to treat viral infections in eukaryotic cells. RNA interference technology involves using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) ( [link] ). siRNAs are completely complementary to the mRNA transcript of a specific gene of interest while miRNAs are mostly complementary. These double-stranded RNAs are bound to DICER, an endonuclease that cleaves the RNA into short molecules (approximately 20 nucleotides long). The RNAs are then bound to RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a ribonucleoprotein. The siRNA-RISC complex binds to mRNA and cleaves it. For miRNA, only one of the two strands binds to RISC. The miRNA-RISC complex then binds to mRNA, inhibiting translation. If the miRNA is completely complementary to the target gene, then the mRNA can be cleaved. Taken together, these mechanisms are known as gene silencing .

Double stranded RNA can be produced from DNA in the nucleus. Dicer than cuts this dsRNA into either miRNA or siRNA. miRNA is an imperfect match and only one strand is usually incorporated into RISC. This blocks translation but the mRNA is stable. The RISC is stuck on the target. The siRNA has a perfect match and is incorporated into RISC. This triggers mRNA cleavage.
This diagram illustrates the process of using siRNA or miRNA in a eukaryotic cell to silence genes involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (credit: modification of work by National Center for Biotechnology Information)

Key concepts and summary

  • The science of genomics allows researchers to study organisms on a holistic level and has many applications of medical relevance.
  • Transcriptomics and proteomics allow researchers to compare gene expression patterns between different cells and shows great promise in better understanding global responses to various conditions.
  • The various –omics technologies complement each other and together provide a more complete picture of an organism’s or microbial community’s ( metagenomics ) state.
  • The analysis required for large data sets produced through genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics has led to the emergence of bioinformatics .
  • Reporter genes encoding easily observable characteristics are commonly used to track gene expression patterns of genes of unknown function.
  • The use of recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing for the rapid production of high-quality recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals used to treat a wide variety of human conditions.
  • RNA interference technology has great promise as a method of treating viral infections by silencing the expression of specific genes

Fill in the blank

The application of genomics to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence is called ____________.

pharmacogenomics or toxicogenomics

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A gene whose expression can be easily visualized and monitored is called a ________.

reporter gene

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

True/false

RNA interference does not influence the sequence of genomic DNA.

true

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

If all cellular proteins are encoded by the cell’s genes, what information does proteomics provide that genomics cannot?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

thilosysis beta oxidation us catalysed by
Tirupati Reply
Explain about enzyme transportation
Shahla Reply
Enzyme transportation
Shahla
it looks reallllyyyyy coooooooollll. i love enzymes theyre so cooll and i also like protein transportation so i think it would be really cool so an enzyme transport something so ill do some research and come back to ya in that
maxo
they be ridin' dirty
Bethany
what is the infectious disease process
Patience Reply
what are differences between endotoxins and exotoxins
sabote Reply
endo toxins work in the nuceus. i think
maxo
tell me if im right tho
maxo
Exotoxins are toxic substances secreted by bacteria and released outside the cell. Both gram positive and gram negative bacteria can produce and secrete exotoxins. Whereas Endotoxins are bacterial toxins consisting of lipids that are located within a cell. Only lysed gram negatives.
Abdi
Remebr the Lipid A portion of LPS is what's toxic.
Abdi
oh yeah. thanks
maxo
Your welcome :)
Abdi
How did you learn this?
maxo
For me personally the best book is 'microbiology made ridiculously simple'
Abdi
I got my basics from there and slowly added information from other sources.
Abdi
thats cool! yeah i like microbiology too! especially the molecular proteins theyre sooooooooooo cool!
maxo
PLZ HEP HOW DO aerobic anereobic BACTERIA MAKE ENERGY?!?!
maxo
what are the prokaryotic
Lungu Reply
prokaraytotic is a unicellular organizm that lacks membrane bound nucleus
Zaajid
and whats eukaryotic
abdiqani
eukaryotic cell are cell which contain anuclues and organells
Zaajid
eukaryotes are the cells that have organells which are protected by membranes
maxo
eukaryotic is are multicellular organisms which are open nucleus.
Serah
Explain on the Francisco reddi did to prove the theory of spontaneous generation
Diana Reply
what is parasite
Abdirizack Reply
parasite are organisms feeds on a host for food and survival.e.g round worm for animal, Dodder for plant parasites.
Serah
parasite are organisms that feeds on a host for food and survival.e.g round worm for animal and mistletoe for plant parasites.
Serah
parasite are organisms that feed on their host
Cylla
designing of aseptic area
Aashish Reply
I don't know
Abdirizack
what is rickettsia
DENNIS Reply
what is microbiology
Erasto
Is the science that works with microorganisms.
Rose
richettsa is small microorganisms that cause disease in human like typhus; they are like viruses that can grow only inside living cells, they're transmitted by mites, ticks or lices.
Rose
what is plasmid?
mavis
plasmid is extra chromosomal body present in bacteria...which have additional genetic functions example... antibiotic resistance genes....etc etc
Chaitanya
state the theory of spontaneous generation of micro oranisms and germ theory of disease
UKAMAKA Reply
what are the advantages of high note numerical aperture
Genius Reply
list if non flagellated pritozoa
Mepung Reply
Can someone that's understanding of the Kreb Cycle please explain & breakdown it down to me in the simplest way without giving me the dictionary version or Google version. Basically in there own words of knowledge....!
Kisha
ok
lucas
please can someone help explain positive and negative feedback in simple term
Gum
negative feedback is the arresting of reaction or reverse of the reaction according to the response and postive feed back is the direct response without reversing or arresting a reaction.
Greet
OK
umar
pls can someone explained Kinney stone in memorising in shot time
umar
what tyoebif microorganism will be killed by antibiotic trwatmeant
Mary Reply
I don't really don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone explain & breakdown this in the simplest way please.
Kisha
Anaerobic Respiration in which foodstuffs are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen, such as alcoholic fermentation, in which one of the end products is ethanol.
Muhammad
aerobic respiration A type of respiration in which foodstuffs are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of chemical energy, in a process requiring atmospheric oxygen.
Muhammad
please can someone explain what pseudomonas species and biofilm is?
uju
Fermentation is the growth of cells or microorganisms in bioreactors (fermenters) to synthesize special products. Fermentation in biochemistry refers to the biodegradation of carbon compounds by cells or organisms under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.
Muhammad
Please under which conditions does pathogens become established in the human tissues and can cause diseases
Atambilla
please the life cycle of plasmodium parasite
mavis
who is John Needham
Mary Reply
John Needham is one of the researcher in microbiology. He also experimented when scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously ,but did believe microbes could.
Gum
okay is he late
Mary
by the way what are the list of courses offered by a newly admitted student for microbiology
Mary
Needham's experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plants material reinforced this idea.
Gum
what drugs are given to a person with Otis nerve problem(ear problem)
Gum Reply

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask