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A TB vaccine is available that is based on the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain of M. bovis commonly found in cattle. In the United States, the BCG vaccine is only given to health-care workers and members of the military who are at risk of exposure to active cases of TB. It is used more broadly worldwide. Many individuals born in other countries have been vaccinated with BCG strain. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB, to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease.

The Mantoux tuberculin skin test ( [link] ) is regularly used in the United States to screen for potential TB exposure (see Hypersensitivities ). However, prior vaccinations with the BCG vaccine can cause false-positive results. Chest radiographs to detect Ghon complex formation are required, therefore, to confirm exposure.

a) a needle injects a small bubble into a person’s skin. B) a ruler is used to measure a red area on a person’s skin.
(a) The Mantoux skin test for tuberculosis involves injecting the subject with tuberculin protein derivative. The injection should initially produce a raised wheal. (b) The test should be read in 48–72 hours. A positive result is indicated by redness, swelling, or hardness; the size of the responding region is measured to determine the final result. (credit a, b: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • What characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis allows it to evade the immune response?
  • What happens to cause miliary tuberculosis?
  • Explain the limitations of the Mantoux tuberculin skin test.

Pertussis (whooping cough)

The causative agent of pertussis , commonly called whooping cough , is Bordetella pertussis , a gram-negative coccobacillus. The disease is characterized by mucus accumulation in the lungs that leads to a long period of severe coughing. Sometimes, following a bout of coughing, a sound resembling a “whoop” is produced as air is inhaled through the inflamed and restricted airway—hence the name whooping cough. Although adults can be infected, the symptoms of this disease are most pronounced in infants and children. Pertussis is highly communicable through droplet transmission, so the uncontrollable coughing produced is an efficient means of transmitting the disease in a susceptible population.

Following inhalation, B. pertussis specifically attaches to epithelial cells using an adhesin , filamentous hemagglutinin. The bacteria then grow at the site of infection and cause disease symptoms through the production of exotoxins. One of the main virulence factors of this organism is an A-B exotoxin called the pertussis toxin (PT) . When PT enters the host cells, it increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and disrupts cellular signaling. PT is known to enhance inflammatory responses involving histamine and serotonin. In addition to PT, B. pertussis produces a tracheal cytotoxin that damages ciliated epithelial cells and results in accumulation of mucus in the lungs. The mucus can support the colonization and growth of other microbes and, as a consequence, secondary infections are common. Together, the effects of these factors produce the cough that characterizes this infection.

Questions & Answers

why do we study microbiology?
Joyce Reply
For the classification, identification of pathogenic microbes ...
Bharat
thanks
Joyce
what is pathogenicity
jesca
diseases causing activity ...
Bharat
of microbes..
Bharat
sorry ability not activity..
Bharat
I think it's the degree of a pathogen to cause infection
Foster
?
youreanonshareer
y'all real or
youreanonshareer
what is prokaryotes
PRALHAD Reply
are micro-organisms that have no nucleus e.g bacteria
Foster
and they do not possess membrane bound organelles e.g mitochondria
Bharat
yes
Foster
they are single cellular organisms,
Rajasekhar
all the organelles are embedded in cytoplasm of the cell
Rajasekhar
They don't possess true nucleus
PREMI
they're unicellular organisms
Kamaluddeen
they are classified as bacteria and. archaea. bacteria have a cell membrane conposed of peptidoglycan and archaea is composed of psuedomu
Tara
pseudomurein
Tara
organelles are non membraneous as the nucleus
Tara
What is the biosynthesis of a bacteria cell
Adesina Reply
biosynthesis is multiple step enzymes catalyze process which occur in bacterial cell
Jayeeta
biological way of manufacturing food and utilizes it for growth, multiplication and development
Kamaluddeen
prokaryot
PRALHAD
what is microbiology
Kiirya Reply
which organism can not be seen necked eyes is knowm as microbiology
meet
microorganisms
Jayeeta
micro can be define as d smallest living organisms dat can not be see wit naked eyes only with the aid of a microscope 🔬
muhammed
bio means life logy means study
muhammed
biology can b define as the systematic study of living things
muhammed
microbiology can be define as the study of tiny organisms, that's according to my understanding
muhammed
Microbiology is the study of living organisms which cannot be seen by the naked eye but only with the aid of a microscope. These microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, fungi, micro-algae, protozoa and virus.
Tatz
microbes that can't seen in naked eyes. upto 100micrometer we can see in naked eyes but 1 microns or nanometers are invisible in naked eye.
Jayeeta
what is a cell
Oteri Reply
cell can be define as smallest indivisible organism in the body
muhammed
cell is the smallest unit which makes up the whole body
Yue
cell is smallest unit and there are two types prokaryotic cell and eukaryote cell. bacteria a prokaryotic cell which works independently.
Jayeeta
nice forum
muhammed
Which parasite competes with the host for vitamin B12 to cause pernicious anaemia
Abubakar
Diphyllobothrium latum for vit B12
Jayeeta
it is also fish tapeworm
Jayeeta
Diphyllobothrium sp feed vitB 12
Jayeeta
recent trends in microbiology of biofertilizer
Ykomalipriya Reply
using nano technology
Jayeeta
what is transposors
EMMANUEL Reply
Junk DNA, jumping gene.
Pradeep
transposon elements are jumping gene as DNA sequence move from one location to anothet
Jayeeta
Yes
Pradeep
what is microbiology
Usama Reply
Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions.
digvijaya
what is gram +ve and gram - ve bacteria?
Sharma
gm- contain lipid layer so it take counter stain during gram staining and pink or red in color but gm + does have thick LPS layer.
Jayeeta
what year microbiology started
Kartik
Robert Koch was the first to detect microorganisms
Jayeeta
what appears microorganisms
Kartik
clear the questions please
Jayeeta
was it robert koch or robert hooke?
digvijaya
microbiology word came from microns. study microbes that not recognize in naked eyes.
Jayeeta
what are the branch of microbiology
Oyemade Reply
We can basically classify into pure and applied microbiology
Ozzie
what is arabinose operon and it's stucture
Pooja Reply
The L-arabinose operon, also called the ara or araBAD operon, is an operon required for the breakdown of the five-carbon sugar, L-arabinose, in Escherichia coli
Tharra
kya hum operon ko divide kar skate hain
Kartik
reactions if viruses to physical and chemical agents?
VICTOR Reply
All viruses contain the following two components: 1) a nucleic acid genome and 2) a protein capsid that covers the genome. Together this is called the nucleocapsid. In addition, many animal viruses contain a 3) lipid envelope. The entire intact virus is called the virion.
Asali
assume you have performed a gram stain on a sample of pus from a patients urethra. you see red, nucleated cells and purple rods. what can you conclude
Petty Reply
bacteria
ABUBAKAR
gram negative bacteria hence gonococcal infection
Kiirya
Study of micro organisation which we cannot see with naked eye...
shyam Reply
Despite their bad reputation, microbes are mostly beneficial or have a neutral effect on our lives. Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Asali
yes
Dhirender
not 'things'...'organisms' like bacterias, viruses and fungi
Sinmi
simi, it's not bacterias but bacteria which is the plural form of the word while bacterium is the singular of it
Richard
bacterium is obvio in a singular form but plural of bacterium is bacterias
Sinmi
Richard is right it's bacterium which is the singular form and plural is bacteria. *Bacterias* doesn't exist.
Aakriti
that is microbiology which is deals with microbes only their structure
Kiirya
what is microbiology?
Sandeep Reply
what is microbiology
Glory
is the study of small microorganisms that can't be viewed by our naked eyes under a microscope
Nabukwasi
it's the study of microbes their classification, diversity, their cellular structure and processes, their applications and interaction with other organisms.
Chaitanya
what is EMP pathway
rajesh
which organism is implicated in meningoencephalitis
Peter Reply
Herpes virus
Carlos
Yeah
Laxmi
which mold is called dairy mold?
Gopinath
mushroomm
Top
Geotrichum candidum
Gopinath
hi
bio
Hlw
Laxmi
which infectious agent is the smallest
Sinmi
spore or virus
Anushree
prion ....it is a single protein in a misfolded form..there is also a theory based on it
Sinmi
yup...m sry
Anushree
yes it can be turned as a virus
Sinmi
which gram positive bacteria is responsible for food poisoning?
Sinmi
prion is not a living organism yet it is infectoois why
Jeevan
prions are virus like organism. and it is a misfolded protein that may cause disease to us.
Tharra
Clostridium perfringens, B.cereus
Sneha
Who is the father of the biology
Dhirender
I have one more question. . that who is the father of botany and medicine? ? can any one tell
Dhirender

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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