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Necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcal infections that start in the skin can sometimes spread elsewhere, resulting in a rare but potentially life-threatening condition called necrotizing fasciitis , sometimes referred to as flesh-eating bacterial syndrome . S. pyogenes is one of several species that can cause this rare but potentially-fatal condition; others include Klebsiella , Clostridium , Escherichia coli , S. aureus , and Aeromonas hydrophila .

Necrotizing fasciitis occurs when the fascia, a thin layer of connective tissue between the skin and muscle, becomes infected. Severe invasive necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes occurs when virulence factors that are responsible for adhesion and invasion overcome host defenses. S. pyogenes invasins allow bacterial cells to adhere to tissues and establish infection. Bacterial proteases unique to S. pyogenes aggressively infiltrate and destroy host tissues, inactivate complement, and prevent neutrophil migration to the site of infection. The infection and resulting tissue death can spread very rapidly, as large areas of skin become detached and die. Treatment generally requires debridement (surgical removal of dead or infected tissue) or amputation of infected limbs to stop the spread of the infection; surgical treatment is supplemented with intravenous antibiotics and other therapies ( [link] ).

Necrotizing fasciitis does not always originate from a skin infection; in some cases there is no known portal of entry. Some studies have suggested that experiencing a blunt force trauma can increase the risk of developing streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. Nuwayhid, Z.B., Aronoff, D.M., and Mulla, Z.D.. “Blunt Trauma as a Risk Factor for Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Fasciitis.” Annals of Epidemiology (2007) 17:878–881.

a) skin with large black, grey and red regions. b) Cut skin in surgery.
(a) The left leg of this patient shows the clinical features of necrotizing fasciitis. (b) The same patient’s leg is surgically debrided to remove the infection. (credit a, b: modification of work by Piotr Smuszkiewicz, Iwona Trojanowska, and Hanna Tomczak)
  • How do staphylococcal infections differ in general presentation from streptococcal infections?

Part 2

Observing that Sam’s wound is purulent, the doctor tells him that he probably has a bacterial infection. She takes a sample from the lesion to send for laboratory analysis, but because it is Friday, she does not expect to receive the results until the following Monday. In the meantime, she prescribes an over-the-counter topical antibiotic ointment. She tells Sam to keep the wound clean and apply a new bandage with the ointment at least twice per day.

  • How would the lab technician determine if the infection is staphylococcal or streptococcal? Suggest several specific methods.
  • What tests might the lab perform to determine the best course of antibiotic treatment?

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Pseudomonas Infections of the skin

Another important skin pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic bacillus that is commonly found in water and soil as well as on human skin. P. aeruginosa is a common cause of opportunistic infections of wounds and burns. It can also cause hot tub rash , a condition characterized by folliculitis that frequently afflicts users of pools and hot tubs (recall the Clinical Focus case in Microbial Biochemistry ). P. aeruginosa is also the cause of otitis externa ( swimmer’s ear ), an infection of the ear canal that causes itching, redness, and discomfort, and can progress to fever, pain, and swelling ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

what are eukaryotes
Kakande Reply
eukaryotes simply refers to a cell who does not have a definite nucleus.
Franca
Eukaryotic cell has a true nucleus
arfa
what is right answer ?
krishna
I can remember now truly that eukaryotes have true nucleus.I was referring to procaryotes.
Franca
Eukaryotes have got true nuclues
Ede
they have a nucleus, larger than prokaryotes
Alanna
The eukaryotes cell are found in advance organisms.
Franca
Eukaryotes are multicellular organism which has a membrane bounded structure mostly found in animals and some plant cells
KINGSFORD
bacteria growth curve
sani Reply
No bacteria's don't grow curvey. Curve is a shape for a bacteria not growth
KINGSFORD
What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
KINGSFORD Reply
What's a multicellular organism?
KINGSFORD
multicellular organisms is an organism composed of many cells which are to varying degree integrated and independent.
Ruth
Boiling of milk to kill germs is called?
Kasigwa
pasteurization
Aiyedun
pasteurization
Katta
kadha
Katta
pasteurization
Gomathi
what is microscopic
monish
Pasteurization
Hosy
what are Flora
Hosy
you mean like the normal flora?
Tenucharity
pasteurization has to do with killing of the harmful microbes present for safe consumption. Eg. pasteurized yoghurt beside the bacteria that are supposed to be present, there may be harmful ones that have been killed
Tenucharity
Can someone explain flora
KINGSFORD
what is cell?
Anita Reply
the cell is the functional and structural unit of the body
Ruth
yes ur right
Kasigwa
who add me
Wali
hy
Katta
hy
Shivangi
basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life.
Haru
hi
Ruth
hi
Haru
coming Oct 2 I have a exam on microbiology
Haru
okay all the best
Ruth
hi
sachin
hi
Ruth
plz bro send question of microbiology
umesh
structural and functional unit of the life
monish
this is not the correct answer
Alanna Reply
why
Hayat
why not
Zaajid
what is the correct answer?
vannessa
where is question
Zaajid
ask you question
Zaajid
What are mitochondria
Hayat
what is mitochondria
Hayat
who is the father of microbiology
T-
not
Hayat
Antonie Van Luweenhoek
Ravikumar
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the Cell. And is the cell organelle which helps cell in generation of energy by Cellular Respiration
Ravikumar
Mitochondria are threadlike structuresbounded by double membrane,and serves as the power house of the cell
Felicity
can I get notes on introduction to microbiology just started I have no idea please
rita
Mitochondria is a membrane bounded structure, it's sausage in shape and has inner and outer membrane. The inner membrane is folded at the surface called cristae which project to form matrix. They function as the power house for the cell.
KINGSFORD
Rita are you a medilab student?
KINGSFORD
the father of microbiology is Luis pasture
Able
Erythromycin--------(+++) Cefuroxine ------------(++++) Chloramphenicol --(++) Vancomycin ---------(++++) please what does the above result means. under urine culture and sensitivity?
Kwame
francesco redi was the first to challenge spontaneous generation not pasteur
Alanna
Rita are you a medilab student? no please am a public health student
rita
kwame Evans this result ll mean that the bacterial in the urine can be remedy / killed by this antibacterial (cefuroxime and the rest are antibiotics
rita
Rita Appiah thanks.
Kwame
contact backstage
Emmanuel
what is a vacual
Star Reply
What is microbiology
Nji Reply
it is the study of microscopic organisms and basically their relation to the environment
Tenucharity
what is elements
Erneet Reply
an Element is a substance that can not be further decomposed by ordinary chemical means.
vannessa
can i get notes of biochemistry
Sneha Reply
yep why not
Abdullah
what is microbiology?
Gayanjali Reply
what is malaria
Gayanjali
bios- life/living things micro- small things that cannot be seen with the naked eye In other words the study of living things that cannot be seen with the naked eye but with the help of a microscope
Coltuneac
logos- science
Coltuneac
it is 10 to the power minus 6 biology which studies life forms on those scales including metabolism , physiology, nutrition requirements
barun
what are prokarytes
NDIMUKIKA Reply
A prokaryotic is a unicellular organanism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus ,mitochondria or other any membrane bound organelle. .......
Maryam
in prokaryotic nucleus is not developed and cell organelles are absent
Harshad
how is one who is feeling blockage in the chest with mucus be diagnosed
Essy Reply
be talking sepitol every morning
Ikenna
is that all?
Ven.phumie
What is prions
Sangeeta Reply
Prions are microscopic organism which have no nucleic acid, no nuclear bounded membrane and affect the brain of animals like sheep's and human such a CJD and Kuru
KINGSFORD
is tuberculosis a viral infection?
hildar Reply
No. It is a Bacterial Infection.
Orooj
what are zn staining
Evelyn Reply
full meaning zeil neelson staining
kezia
By using zn stain we diagnose / examine acid fast bacilli .
Deepak
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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