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Necrotizing fasciitis

Streptococcal infections that start in the skin can sometimes spread elsewhere, resulting in a rare but potentially life-threatening condition called necrotizing fasciitis , sometimes referred to as flesh-eating bacterial syndrome . S. pyogenes is one of several species that can cause this rare but potentially-fatal condition; others include Klebsiella , Clostridium , Escherichia coli , S. aureus , and Aeromonas hydrophila .

Necrotizing fasciitis occurs when the fascia, a thin layer of connective tissue between the skin and muscle, becomes infected. Severe invasive necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes occurs when virulence factors that are responsible for adhesion and invasion overcome host defenses. S. pyogenes invasins allow bacterial cells to adhere to tissues and establish infection. Bacterial proteases unique to S. pyogenes aggressively infiltrate and destroy host tissues, inactivate complement, and prevent neutrophil migration to the site of infection. The infection and resulting tissue death can spread very rapidly, as large areas of skin become detached and die. Treatment generally requires debridement (surgical removal of dead or infected tissue) or amputation of infected limbs to stop the spread of the infection; surgical treatment is supplemented with intravenous antibiotics and other therapies ( [link] ).

Necrotizing fasciitis does not always originate from a skin infection; in some cases there is no known portal of entry. Some studies have suggested that experiencing a blunt force trauma can increase the risk of developing streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. Nuwayhid, Z.B., Aronoff, D.M., and Mulla, Z.D.. “Blunt Trauma as a Risk Factor for Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Fasciitis.” Annals of Epidemiology (2007) 17:878–881.

a) skin with large black, grey and red regions. b) Cut skin in surgery.
(a) The left leg of this patient shows the clinical features of necrotizing fasciitis. (b) The same patient’s leg is surgically debrided to remove the infection. (credit a, b: modification of work by Piotr Smuszkiewicz, Iwona Trojanowska, and Hanna Tomczak)
  • How do staphylococcal infections differ in general presentation from streptococcal infections?

Part 2

Observing that Sam’s wound is purulent, the doctor tells him that he probably has a bacterial infection. She takes a sample from the lesion to send for laboratory analysis, but because it is Friday, she does not expect to receive the results until the following Monday. In the meantime, she prescribes an over-the-counter topical antibiotic ointment. She tells Sam to keep the wound clean and apply a new bandage with the ointment at least twice per day.

  • How would the lab technician determine if the infection is staphylococcal or streptococcal? Suggest several specific methods.
  • What tests might the lab perform to determine the best course of antibiotic treatment?

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Pseudomonas Infections of the skin

Another important skin pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic bacillus that is commonly found in water and soil as well as on human skin. P. aeruginosa is a common cause of opportunistic infections of wounds and burns. It can also cause hot tub rash , a condition characterized by folliculitis that frequently afflicts users of pools and hot tubs (recall the Clinical Focus case in Microbial Biochemistry ). P. aeruginosa is also the cause of otitis externa ( swimmer’s ear ), an infection of the ear canal that causes itching, redness, and discomfort, and can progress to fever, pain, and swelling ( [link] ).

Questions & Answers

a.o.a can u please tell me five name of Gram +be bacteria
Tahira Reply
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
staphylococcus ,streptococcus,lactobacillus,mycobacterium,clostridium, bacillus,enterococcus.
Nadiya
thank u so much
Tahira
1. Staphylococci 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3. Bacillus anthrasis 4. Chlostridium 5. Diplococci
praveen
gram -ve mn knsy hn
Tahira
pseudomonas
Nadiya
wo bhi 5 hon
Tahira
salmonella,proteus,shigella,neisseria
Nadiya
wo bhi 5 hon
Tahira
Nadiya ap kia krti hn?
Tahira
bsc microbiology final year
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
and u
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
and u
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
MSc zoolgy. 1st semester
Tahira
B.Sc microbiology 1st year
praveen
konse cllg se aap dono?
Nadiya
good
Tahira
mn vu sy hoon and u?
Tahira
davv
Nadiya
Vijaya College,R.V.Road,Basavangudi Bangalore-560004
praveen
oh!! bht khub
Nadiya
hi
Nouman
how are u
Nouman
thank u friend
Nouman
please define classification of bacteria
Nouman
calssification of bacteria are of 3 types: ●.on the basis of shap:1.spirilla 2.bacilli 3.cocci ●in the basis of gram stain : 1.gram -ve 2.gram +ve ●on the basis of oxygen demand: 1.aerobic 2.anaerobic.
Nadiya
detail se please
Nouman
paresention hai iseley
Nouman
jo bacteria hote hai pehle to woh 3 tarha se unka classification kiya jata hai .pehle y ki shape kya hai ....lakin shape hum tab hi define kar payenge jab hum unhe pehchanenge ki bacteria ko kaise jane ki woh kaise hote hai or unka classification kaise hota hai
Nadiya
to hum gram staining karte hai
Nadiya
gram staining ek aaisi technique hoti hai jise hun 2 large group m devide karte hai
Nadiya
or differenciate karte hai bacteria ko
Nadiya
based on thir diff. cell wall constituents
Nadiya
gram staining ko 2 procedure mai distinguish between kiya gaya hai
Nadiya
gram positive and gram negative
Nadiya
phir
Nouman
gram +ve and gram -ve groups by colouring these cells red or violet colour.
Nadiya
red jo cells hogi woh pink bhi ho sakti h because stains ki wajah se uski quantity ki wajah se
Nadiya
gram positive bact.stain violet due to presence a thick layer of a peptidoglycon in theri cell walls are stained with.. or gram -ve bact.stain red .which is attribute to a thinner peptidoglycan wall.
Nadiya
ab hum unhe identify karenge microscope mai
Nadiya
then fir hum identify karte karte hum shape dekhenge
Nadiya
gram positive cocci or rod shaped k honge .or garm negative cocci or rods or spirochaetes honge .......lakin inke colour ki wajah se hum pehchanenge ki red or pink aaya to gram negative .or agar violet aaya to positive
Nadiya
ok?
Nadiya
Ok
Asghar
fir
Nouman
Ok
Asghar
or bhi types k hote hai bacteria jaise sphirical "cocci",rod "bacilli",spiral"spirilla",comma shape k jo honge woh"vibrio",or corkscrew shape k jo honge woh "spirochaetes.
Nadiya
fir
Nouman
or oxygen k basis pr dekhenge agar apan to woh :aerobic jo o2 ki presence m honge or anaerobic jo honge woh without oxygen ki presence mai servive karenge .sabhi micro organisms banate h energy cellular respiration k through. lakin aerobic and anaerobic k basis pr bhi diffrenciate hote hai yeh .
Nadiya
Streptococcus Staphylococcus Corynebacterium Clostridium
Srinivas
yeh 3no calssification batadiye detail mai ab aap net p or seach kar le
Nadiya
fir
Nouman
ok thank u so much
Nouman
کتنے پیارے اور چھوٹے سے خواب ہیں آپ کے ۔ الله پاک آپ کے سپنے سچ اور پورے کرے ۔ آمین ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔💝
Nouman
my pleasure!
Nadiya
acha ji ap ho kaha se
Nouman
Hyderabad
Srinivas
telangana
Srinivas
what is the gram negative
Xaviery Reply
what is enzyme immobilizatio ?
Nadiya Reply
the process of decreasing the rate of enzyme activity.
Edward
shukriya edward knevy .thnks .
Nadiya
sorry thi one is about enzyme inhibition
Edward
enzyme immobization is imprisonment of enzyme in a matrix.
Edward
i am confused
Nadiya
about what
Edward
ok .....i understood ur last one msg .
Nadiya
thanks .
Nadiya
Hallow
Chimo
my pleasure
Edward
can you helpe me please 🤗🤗
Chimo
?
Nadiya
apna number send kar
Asghar
but why
Nadiya
imuhhe patta nhi aapka ki aap kon ho to mai kaise no. send karu aapko or kyu karu ? wajaah to bataaa .
Nadiya
mujhe pata nhi
Nadiya
I want to learn microbiology
rakesh
this app is very benifit to learn microbiology .
Nadiya
Man Topics for Microbiology
rakesh
Please tell me
rakesh
first.u clear ur basic concept in microbiology .
Nadiya
Secondly what should you do
Nancy
u can start ur studies in book by dubey and maheshwari author.
Nadiya
what is primary and secondary screening ?
Nadiya Reply
which scope in the field of dmlt corse ? snd plz explain your experiences with me !
Nadiya
Country?
Number
india
Nadiya
Depends on place
Number
your birth place ?
Nadiya
whats your profession ?
Nadiya
scope of microbiolgy?
Nadiya
Clinical microbiologist
Number
M a doctor
Number
Dmlt isn't that good in india
Number
Bakwas hai
Number
but why ?
Nadiya
whats ur counter plz give m answer ?
Nadiya
Coz i know
Number
Saturation
Number
oh .i get it.
Nadiya
but what choose i ?in this field?
Nadiya
Hmm
Number
Wats ur basic qualification
Number
Good evening all
Ngozi
microbiology
Nadiya
evening
Dennis
good evening 2 u
Nadiya
What microbiology?
Number
bsc final year in micro.......
Nadiya
Do msc n PhD then.... Its better than dmlt n ll
Number
but i dont do this
Nadiya
what Cadillac
Topcy
number@......u r a doctor ?
Nadiya
really
Nadiya
plz explain the defination of scale up of fermentation ?
Nadiya
how do micro biology aids pharmacy
Dennis Reply
please check Google.
Nadiya
bcz very interested topic are able in goggle site
Nadiya
I'm Jeremiah what are the step that involved Gram staining
Jeremiah Reply
place slide with heat fixed smear on staining
Nadiya
smear with crystal violet and let stand for 1 min
Nadiya
and then after 1 min gently wash rinse with tap water...than smear the grams idone and stand for 1 min
Nadiya
again rinse with tap water.then,rhe smear will appear as a purple circle on the slide
Nadiya
then ,decolarize 95%with ethyl alcohol and acetone .till the slide slightly and apply tge alcohol deop by drop for 5 to 10 sec.
Nadiya
and then the alcohol until runs the almost clear .carefully not to over decolorization
Nadiya
immideatly rinse with water.
Nadiya
view the smear using a light microscope under oil immersion
Nadiya
and then complete 😊
Nadiya
.
Nadiya
what is the relation between aspergillus and vinegar.
Asad
can anyone send me the procedure of using autoclave.
Asad
yeh i will....but i can send a site on google !then u can read easily and understand it the procedure of autoclave ? ok .
Nadiya
***google autoclave procedure.
Nadiya
and u write in google site ......procedure of using an autoclave
Nadiya
Hi
Asghar
nadiya you send me phone number
Asghar
can anyone send me the calculation and formula for spread plate technique cfu/ml
Ankita
@Nadiya... I think u have missed the last step of gram staining after decolonization with alcohol we have to counter stain it with either basic fucshin Or Saffranin.
Ankita
yaa ofcourse ...thank u so much ankitaa.
Nadiya
hi asghar
Nadiya
who are u ? and where are u live from ?
Nadiya
Ideally we should use 5 second technique while making one slide of Grams stain
Number
what is scale up of fermentation ?
Nadiya
the most commonly used microorganisms in alcohol fermentation is?
Shaikh Reply
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Online
saccharomyses
Nadiya
Yeast is the most commonly used microorganism for ethanol productionby fermentation. ... Besides S. cerevisiae, other examples of yeastsused for ethanol production are Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida spp., Pichia spp that are able to ferment...
bazi
Ethanol fermentation using the hydrolysate obtained after the saccharification of biomass is the last step in lignocellulosic bioethanol production process. The hydrolysate contains large amount of fermentable sugars that can be directly used by the ethanologenic microorganisms. Yeast is the most co
Najeebul
saccharomyces
Nadiya
yeast
Nadiya
yeast
Veronica
A.o.a aspergillus aur vinegar ka kia relation he.?
Asad
Hmm
Number
what is difference between primary host and secondary host ?
Edward
what is primary screening and secondary screening ....hmm?
Nadiya
primary and secondry host ...best example of female anaPhilis .and disease -maleria !
Nadiya
i am asking about difference not example
Edward
Primary host- the host in which the adult parasite lives, and reproduces sexually. Secondary host- the host in which the immature forms of parasite lives
bazi
primary host -the host in which the adult parasite lives ,and reproduces sexually.and the second host -host in which the immature forms of parasite lives. okyyyy?
Nadiya
synthesis of DNA from a single strand of RNA
Veronica Reply
In this initially , a single stranded RNA is taken into a eppendorff tube as a template for synthesis of Double stranded DNA and dNTPs are added along with reverse transcriptase enzyme . All should be placed in buffered solution. Then above mixture is run on RTPCR machine.
Ravikumar
In which initially double stranded RNA- DNA hybrid is formed and later multiple copies of Double stranded DNA is Formed in number of cycles.
Ravikumar
exactly
Nadiya
what is a virus?
abdulwali Reply
What is DNA transcription
abdulwali
virus is not a bacteria ...it is present in our body fluid .the protein are not composed and work in a proper manner the virus present quikly .
Nadiya
i refer a book name .u find ur question answers .12 or 11th book
Nadiya
DNA trancription is a process the imfirmation are transfer into dna to dna and dna to rna is called dna transcription
Nadiya
in other words,dna transcription ,:in thich a particular segment of dna is copied into rnaand especially mRNA by the enzyme rna polymerase .
Nadiya
why most virus are of RNA genome?
Mika Reply
Good Question❓
MALESELA
its due to their fastidious nature.
Kwame
enlist types of bacteria on tha basis of arrangement of tha flagella
Mihir Reply
monotrichous:vibrio cholerae, amphitrichous,lophotrichous,and last peritrichous.
Nadiya
apna number send kar
Asghar
wooow
MALESELA
o335197242
Asghar
econom emportance of bacteria
Japhet Reply
We can get agar which is used in microbiological media
Kashif
cause disease
Mika
industrial use.
Nadiya
what is microbiology
Anil Reply
what is bacteriology
Anil
vaccine chapter notes give me
Ambika
In bacteria
Kashif
the study of bacteria
Zaajid
microbiology the study of small living thinks that can not seen by the eye
Zaajid
Only micro organism can be studied in microbiology
Kashif
no some of microbiology study of smll living things that cn not be sen by the eye
Zaajid
kashif qamar do you known micro micro means small
Zaajid
Ya but microbiology is a broad term which is not only for small but in this there are some alge and funji that canbbe studied here
Kashif
ya!!! I have a qz what is different btn virulence and virus
Kurwa
so this means, it is the study of microorganisms and their importance.
Kwame
virulence means their level of infection or how infectious a viron is. virus is an intracellular obligates or fastidious organism(parasites) that cannot be filtered with a biological filter and cause harm to it host.
Kwame
so what brought about the study of microbiology
anawuje
Hi guys what is life.... Basic definition require
Kashif
life is the situation of an living organism to survive in a certain condition as host or parasite also life it include commonly living organism that have ability to survive bt life do not include dead organism .
Kurwa
hello explain ways in which gene expression is controlled in a eukaryotic cell...
Cotilda
gene expression how? please come clear!
Kwame
please what does a lady with G6PD result "Partial Defect" signifies?
Kwame
please what is nosocomia infection
Kwabena
nosocomia infection is the infection that are obtained from the hospital or the environment eg TB
Timothy
what is the microbiology
Moha
i think study of all microbes or micro oraganisms
abdul
The branch of that deals with micro organisms
Katta
Koch postulate
Suraju
study of microorganisms
Mika
microbilogy is a study of microbes and microorganisms ...we cannot seen with the naked eyes.
Nadiya
and they can cause many types of diseases .they are benificial and harmful......overall ..microbiology is the study of micro organinsm
Nadiya
study of bacteria is called becteriology.
Nadiya
What is the name of the bacteria cell that stop the replication of DNA
adebisi Reply
onyii
Chisom
Hi this s saroja from hyd
Katipogu
ESBL ARTICLE
Katipogu
What s the reference book for Esbl
Katipogu
hello. who likes microbs? :)
Bahadir
is there any injectable vit. B cmplex?! hi there to all group chatter...
Josearnel
what is the reference book of this course?
Syarifa Reply
Do u want an undergraduate book or a postgraduate book
Number
please what does a woman with G6PD result' Partial Defect means?
Kwame
Evans this ll mean that the person has theG6PD is small in the blood and can still not take drugs with sulphur content
rita
Evans this ll mean that the G6PD defeat is small in the blood and can still not take drugs with sulphur content
rita
wow
Blessing
have Miss a lot can I get a teacher to teach me
Blessing
undergraduate book, please! @number seven
Syarifa
antigen and antibody reaction chapter notes
Ambika
what will happen if the person should take a drug with sulphur content
ignatius
@syarifa u can consult jawetz, levinsons, ananth narayan or a new book recommended by konemans... Medical microbiology by Apurbo shankar shastry
Number
A.h Patel
Nadiya
pelzar
Nadiya
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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