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Learning objectives

  • Describe the major anatomical features of the nervous system
  • Explain why there is no normal microbiota of the nervous system
  • Explain how microorganisms overcome defenses of the nervous system to cause infection
  • Identify and describe general symptoms associated with various infections of the nervous system

Part 1

David is a 35-year-old carpenter from New Jersey. A year ago, he was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that has no known cause. He has been taking a prescription corticosteroid to manage the condition, and the drug has been highly effective in keeping his symptoms at bay. However, David recently fell ill and decided to visit his primary care physician. His symptoms included a fever, a persistent cough, and shortness of breath. His physician ordered a chest X-ray, which revealed consolidation of the right lung. The doctor prescribed a course of levofloxacin and told David to come back in a week if he did not feel better.

  • What type of drug is levofloxacin?
  • What type of microbes would this drug be effective against?
  • What type of infection is consistent with David’s symptoms?

Jump to the next Clinical Focus box.

The human nervous system can be divided into two interacting subsystems: the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS) . The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is an extensive network of nerves connecting the CNS to the muscles and sensory structures. The relationship of these systems is illustrated in [link] .

The central nervous system

The brain is the most complex and sensitive organ in the body. It is responsible for all functions of the body, including serving as the coordinating center for all sensations, mobility, emotions, and intellect. Protection for the brain is provided by the bones of the skull, which in turn are covered by the scalp, as shown in [link] . The scalp is composed of an outer layer of skin, which is loosely attached to the aponeurosis , a flat, broad tendon layer that anchors the superficial layers of the skin. The periosteum , below the aponeurosis, firmly encases the bones of the skull and provides protection, nutrition to the bone, and the capacity for bone repair. Below the boney layer of the skull are three layers of membranes called meninges that surround the brain. The relative positions of these meninges are shown in [link] . The meningeal layer closest to the bones of the skull is called the dura mater (literally meaning tough mother ). Below the dura mater lies the arachnoid mater (literally spider-like mother ). The innermost meningeal layer is a delicate membrane called the pia mater (literally tender mother ). Unlike the other meningeal layers, the pia mater firmly adheres to the convoluted surface of the brain. Between the arachnoid mater and pia mater is the subarachnoid space . The subarachnoid space within this region is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) . This watery fluid is produced by cells of the choroid plexus—areas in each ventricle of the brain that consist of cuboidal epithelial cells surrounding dense capillary beds. The CSF serves to deliver nutrients and remove waste from neural tissues.

Questions & Answers

what are eukaryotes
Kakande Reply
eukaryotes simply refers to a cell who does not have a definite nucleus.
Franca
Eukaryotic cell has a true nucleus
arfa
what is right answer ?
krishna
I can remember now truly that eukaryotes have true nucleus.I was referring to procaryotes.
Franca
Eukaryotes have got true nuclues
Ede
they have a nucleus, larger than prokaryotes
Alanna
The eukaryotes cell are found in advance organisms.
Franca
Eukaryotes are multicellular organism which has a membrane bounded structure mostly found in animals and some plant cells
KINGSFORD
bacteria growth curve
sani Reply
No bacteria's don't grow curvey. Curve is a shape for a bacteria not growth
KINGSFORD
What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
KINGSFORD Reply
What's a multicellular organism?
KINGSFORD
multicellular organisms is an organism composed of many cells which are to varying degree integrated and independent.
Ruth
Boiling of milk to kill germs is called?
Kasigwa
pasteurization
Aiyedun
pasteurization
Katta
kadha
Katta
pasteurization
Gomathi
what is microscopic
monish
Pasteurization
Hosy
what are Flora
Hosy
you mean like the normal flora?
Tenucharity
pasteurization has to do with killing of the harmful microbes present for safe consumption. Eg. pasteurized yoghurt beside the bacteria that are supposed to be present, there may be harmful ones that have been killed
Tenucharity
Can someone explain flora
KINGSFORD
what is cell?
Anita Reply
the cell is the functional and structural unit of the body
Ruth
yes ur right
Kasigwa
who add me
Wali
hy
Katta
hy
Shivangi
basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life.
Haru
hi
Ruth
hi
Haru
coming Oct 2 I have a exam on microbiology
Haru
okay all the best
Ruth
hi
sachin
hi
Ruth
plz bro send question of microbiology
umesh
structural and functional unit of the life
monish
this is not the correct answer
Alanna Reply
why
Hayat
why not
Zaajid
what is the correct answer?
vannessa
where is question
Zaajid
ask you question
Zaajid
What are mitochondria
Hayat
what is mitochondria
Hayat
who is the father of microbiology
T-
not
Hayat
Antonie Van Luweenhoek
Ravikumar
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the Cell. And is the cell organelle which helps cell in generation of energy by Cellular Respiration
Ravikumar
Mitochondria are threadlike structuresbounded by double membrane,and serves as the power house of the cell
Felicity
can I get notes on introduction to microbiology just started I have no idea please
rita
Mitochondria is a membrane bounded structure, it's sausage in shape and has inner and outer membrane. The inner membrane is folded at the surface called cristae which project to form matrix. They function as the power house for the cell.
KINGSFORD
Rita are you a medilab student?
KINGSFORD
the father of microbiology is Luis pasture
Able
Erythromycin--------(+++) Cefuroxine ------------(++++) Chloramphenicol --(++) Vancomycin ---------(++++) please what does the above result means. under urine culture and sensitivity?
Kwame
francesco redi was the first to challenge spontaneous generation not pasteur
Alanna
Rita are you a medilab student? no please am a public health student
rita
kwame Evans this result ll mean that the bacterial in the urine can be remedy / killed by this antibacterial (cefuroxime and the rest are antibiotics
rita
Rita Appiah thanks.
Kwame
contact backstage
Emmanuel
what is a vacual
Star Reply
What is microbiology
Nji Reply
it is the study of microscopic organisms and basically their relation to the environment
Tenucharity
what is elements
Erneet Reply
an Element is a substance that can not be further decomposed by ordinary chemical means.
vannessa
can i get notes of biochemistry
Sneha Reply
yep why not
Abdullah
what is microbiology?
Gayanjali Reply
what is malaria
Gayanjali
bios- life/living things micro- small things that cannot be seen with the naked eye In other words the study of living things that cannot be seen with the naked eye but with the help of a microscope
Coltuneac
logos- science
Coltuneac
it is 10 to the power minus 6 biology which studies life forms on those scales including metabolism , physiology, nutrition requirements
barun
what are prokarytes
NDIMUKIKA Reply
A prokaryotic is a unicellular organanism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus ,mitochondria or other any membrane bound organelle. .......
Maryam
in prokaryotic nucleus is not developed and cell organelles are absent
Harshad
how is one who is feeling blockage in the chest with mucus be diagnosed
Essy Reply
be talking sepitol every morning
Ikenna
is that all?
Ven.phumie
What is prions
Sangeeta Reply
Prions are microscopic organism which have no nucleic acid, no nuclear bounded membrane and affect the brain of animals like sheep's and human such a CJD and Kuru
KINGSFORD
is tuberculosis a viral infection?
hildar Reply
No. It is a Bacterial Infection.
Orooj
what are zn staining
Evelyn Reply
full meaning zeil neelson staining
kezia
By using zn stain we diagnose / examine acid fast bacilli .
Deepak

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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