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  • Japanese encephalitis arboviral disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and endemic to Asia
  • jaundice yellowish color of the skin and mucous membranes caused by excessive bilirubin caused by a failure of the liver to effectively process the breakdown of hemoglobin


  • keratin a fibrous protein found in hair, nails, and skin
  • keratitis inflammation of the cornea
  • keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of both the cornea and the conjunctiva
  • kidney organ that filters the blood, producing urine
  • Kinyoun technique a method of acid-fast staining that does not use heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  • Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test simple, rapid method for determining susceptibility and resistance of a bacterial pathogen to antibacterial drugs. The test involves drug-impregnated disks placed on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn.
  • Koplik’s spots white spots that form on the inner lining of the cheek of patients with measles
  • Krebs cycle cyclic pathway during which each two-carbon unit entering the cycle is further oxidized, producing three NADH, one FADH 2 , and one ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, releasing two CO 2 molecules and regenerating the molecule used in the first step; also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • kuru rare form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy endemic to Papua New Guinea


  • lacrimal duct connects the lacrimal gland to the lacrimal sac
  • lacrimal gland a gland situated above the eye that secretes tears
  • lacrimal punctum opening in each upper and lower eyelid
  • lacrimal sac a to a reservoir for tears; also known as the dacrocyst or tear sac
  • lag period the time between antigen exposure and production of antibodies
  • lag phase interval before exponential growth of a microbial population during which cells adjust to a new environment
  • lagging strand strand of DNA made discontinuously by DNA polymerase
  • laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
  • laryngopharynx lower portion of the pharynx that connects to the larynx
  • larynx region of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also referred to as the voice box
  • latent disease disease that goes into a dormant nonreplicative state after the acute disease and can persist in this state for years, with the risk of reactivation back into acute disease
  • latent virus virus that remains dormant in the host genome
  • lateral flow test see immunochromatographic assays
  • leading strand strand of DNA made continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction by DNA polymerase
  • Legionnaires disease atypical pneumonia occurring in older individuals; caused by the inhalation of Legionella pneumophila aerosolized in water
  • leishmaniasis protozoan infection caused by Leishmania spp. and transmitted by sand flies
  • leprosy see Hansen’s disease
  • leptospirosis bacterial infection of the kidney caused by Leptospira spp.; may spread to the liver, lungs, brain, and other organs
  • leukocidin class of exotoxin that targets and lyses leukocytes
  • leukocytes white blood cells of various types, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes
  • leukotrienes lipid-based chemical mediators produced by leukocytes and other tissue cells; promote inflammation and allergic responses
  • lichen symbiotic association of a fungus with an algae or cyanobacterium
  • ligation repair of the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, making the DNA molecule continuous
  • light chains the shorter identical peptide chains of an antibody molecule (two per antibody monomer), composed of variable and constant region segments
  • light-dependent reaction process by which energy from sunlight is absorbed by pigment molecules in photosynthetic membranes and converted into stored chemical energy in the forms of ATP and NADPH
  • light-harvesting complex group of multiple proteins and associated pigments that each may absorb light energy to become excited, and transfer this energy from one pigment molecule to another until the energy is delivered to a reaction center pigment
  • light-independent reaction process by which chemical energy, in the form of ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, is used to fix inorganic CO 2 into organic sugar; usually referred to as the Calvin-Benson cycle
  • lincomycin naturally produced protein synthesis inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  • lincosamides class of protein synthesis inhibitors that are similar to macrolides
  • linked recognition a mechanism whereby a B cell and the helper T cell with which it interacts recognize the same antigen
  • lipase extracellular enzyme that degrades triglycerides
  • lipid bilayer biological membranes composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called unit membrane
  • lipid macromolecule composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen; source of nutrients for organisms, a storage form for carbon and energy, a part of the structure of membranes, and may function as hormones, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and pigments
  • lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid molecules with attached sugars that are found as components of gram-negative outer membranes
  • lipoprotein conjugated protein attached to a lipid
  • listeriosis bacterial disease caused from the ingestion of the microbe Listeria monocytogenes
  • lithotroph chemotroph that uses inorganic chemicals as its electron source; also known as chemoautotroph
  • live attenuated vaccine vaccine with live pathogen that has been attenuated to become less virulent in order to produce an active but subclinical infection
  • liver fluke a trematode worm that affects the bile duct of the liver, including Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica
  • local infection infection in one limited area
  • log phase interval of growth when cells divide exponentially; also known as the exponential growth phase
  • loiasis a disease caused by the parasitic Loa loa worm, which is transmitted by deerflies; adult worms live in the subcutaneous tissue and cause inflammation, swelling, and eye pain as they migrate through the skin and the conjunctiva of the eye
  • lophotrichous having a single tuft of flagella located at one end of a bacterial cell
  • low G+C gram-positive bacteria bacteria that have less than 50% of guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA
  • lumen space inside the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells
  • Lyme disease tickborne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi
  • lymph nodes bean-shaped organs situated throughout the body that contain areas called germinal centers, which are rich in B and T lymphocytes; also contain macrophages and dendritic cells for antigen presentation
  • lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
  • lymphangitis inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
  • lymphogranuloma venereum infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in tropical regions
  • lyophilization rapid freezing, followed by placement under a vacuum, of a material so that water is lost by sublimation, thereby inhibiting microbial growth
  • lysis destruction of the host cell
  • lysogen bacterium carrying the prophage
  • lysogenic conversion (phage conversion) alteration of host characteristics or phenotypes due to the presence of phage
  • lysogenic cycle life cycle of some phages in which the genome of the infecting phage is integrated into the bacterial chromosome and replicated during bacterial reproduction until it excises and enters a lytic phase of the life cycle
  • lysogeny process of integrating the phage into the host genome
  • lysosome an organelle of the endomembrane system that contains digestive enzymes that break down engulfed material such as foodstuffs, infectious particles, or damaged cellular components
  • lytic cycle infection process that leads to the lysis of host cells

Questions & Answers

what is rickettsia
state the theory of spontaneous generation of micro oranisms and germ theory of disease
what are the advantages of high note numerical aperture
Genius Reply
list if non flagellated pritozoa
Mepung Reply
Can someone that's understanding of the Kreb Cycle please explain & breakdown it down to me in the simplest way without giving me the dictionary version or Google version. Basically in there own words of knowledge....!
please can someone help explain positive and negative feedback in simple term
negative feedback is the arresting of reaction or reverse of the reaction according to the response and postive feed back is the direct response without reversing or arresting a reaction.
pls can someone explained Kinney stone in memorising in shot time
what tyoebif microorganism will be killed by antibiotic trwatmeant
Mary Reply
I don't really don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone explain & breakdown this in the simplest way please.
Anaerobic Respiration in which foodstuffs are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen, such as alcoholic fermentation, in which one of the end products is ethanol.
aerobic respiration A type of respiration in which foodstuffs are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of chemical energy, in a process requiring atmospheric oxygen.
please can someone explain what pseudomonas species and biofilm is?
Fermentation is the growth of cells or microorganisms in bioreactors (fermenters) to synthesize special products. Fermentation in biochemistry refers to the biodegradation of carbon compounds by cells or organisms under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.
Please under which conditions does pathogens become established in the human tissues and can cause diseases
please the life cycle of plasmodium parasite
who is John Needham
Mary Reply
John Needham is one of the researcher in microbiology. He also experimented when scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously ,but did believe microbes could.
okay is he late
by the way what are the list of courses offered by a newly admitted student for microbiology
Needham's experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plants material reinforced this idea.
what drugs are given to a person with Otis nerve problem(ear problem)
Gum Reply
good morning to you all.
Muhammad Reply
Dr.A.K.S.P.G. college Akbarpur Ambedkar Nagar
Shailesh Vishwakarma BSc 1st year
differentiate between eukaryotes en prikaryotes
eukaryotes are organisms with complex cellular structure(presence of nucleus and mitochondrial) like plants and animals whilst prokaryotes are organisms with simple cellular structure (absence of nucleus, mitochondrial) like arthropods.
hello sir
I am Pankaj from bihar
I am study in NDRI karnal in btech in dairy
I am Pankaj from bihar
thanks am studying biomedical sciences in zambia.chikankata
Am a studying Disease Control in Ghana(kintampo)
I'm studying Environmental health in Zimbabwe 🇿🇼
am Joyce mwale studying nursing in Lusaka Zambia
hi pankaj
hi frds iam from India
IAM studying degree (micro biology)
Hi I am microbiologist
Hi friends I'm from Nigeria studying Microbiology
i am biotechnologist from pakistan
hi feds iam from india
hy frnds am from Uganda
am studying nursing/midwifery n kampala
I'm Gum Joseph Kakuu from Ghana,I'm studying RGN in nursing Jirapa.
I'm Hellen from Kenya studying applied biology
I live in india
am studying biotechnology
am maryjoy uwaoma from Nigeria,I am studying microbiology in NSUKKA NIGERIA
Nice meeting You people hear
thanks you.
can someone in there own words in the simplest way breakdown what aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation means please and not from the dictionary version...!
what are the cultivation and identification of microorganisms
Algel Reply
ransport media.basic culture media.enriched media..differential media .indetification media
algel th above are some v th basic medias for bacterial growth
factors that can Prone the host to get disease
Linda Reply
what are the factors that prones host to get disease
Not sure about it, can you tell us Linda?
please I want to know the factors that prones host to get disease
please Linda we have internal and external factors. internal factors are within our body cavities.eg mother having TB giving it to her child,and the others. external factors are within our surrounding environment which include our daily activities(bathing, buying food and the others)
I don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone that do give me a short & simple breakdown.
pliz kisha ..aerobic respiration is th typ v repiration whre organisms use oxgyen for survival while anaerobic respiration is whre organisms survive without oxgyen at all.these use carbondioxide
Guys pls answer me this question fast... What are the purpose of infection prevention in 50 words..
The purpose of infection and prevention is a scientific approach and practical solution designed to prevent harm cause by infection to Pt and health worker
what is the sequence of kingdom concept?
isha Reply
what is immunity
what are the classification and identification of microorganisms
whats anatomy
and physiology
anatomy is the study of the human structure
physiolog is the study of the human body function
Anatomy and physiology is the study of the human body parts and their functions.
who's the father of Microbiology
The definition you gave is not for the two
leeuwenhoek is the real father of microbiology
anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body part while Physiolog is the study of the function of body part
thats real definition
I am sure about Louis pasteur been the real father of microbiology
microbiology father is marcelo
sorry the father is Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek
The father is Marcello Malpighi
Anatomy and physiology is the study of the body structures and how they relate to each other
which drawing in figure 4.1 is a tetrad
adnaloy Reply
OK I hear
syphilis a reproductive disease?
Ulamila Reply
yaa but not exactly
what are the possible disease cause by virse?
what is improtance thing we need to know about fungi!
toxins,ancient origin ,and diseases by fungi are very hard to cure
The disease cause by virus is HIV/AIDS

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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