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J

  • Japanese encephalitis arboviral disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and endemic to Asia
  • jaundice yellowish color of the skin and mucous membranes caused by excessive bilirubin caused by a failure of the liver to effectively process the breakdown of hemoglobin

K

  • keratin a fibrous protein found in hair, nails, and skin
  • keratitis inflammation of the cornea
  • keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of both the cornea and the conjunctiva
  • kidney organ that filters the blood, producing urine
  • Kinyoun technique a method of acid-fast staining that does not use heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  • Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test simple, rapid method for determining susceptibility and resistance of a bacterial pathogen to antibacterial drugs. The test involves drug-impregnated disks placed on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn.
  • Koplik’s spots white spots that form on the inner lining of the cheek of patients with measles
  • Krebs cycle cyclic pathway during which each two-carbon unit entering the cycle is further oxidized, producing three NADH, one FADH 2 , and one ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, releasing two CO 2 molecules and regenerating the molecule used in the first step; also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle
  • kuru rare form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy endemic to Papua New Guinea

L

  • lacrimal duct connects the lacrimal gland to the lacrimal sac
  • lacrimal gland a gland situated above the eye that secretes tears
  • lacrimal punctum opening in each upper and lower eyelid
  • lacrimal sac a to a reservoir for tears; also known as the dacrocyst or tear sac
  • lag period the time between antigen exposure and production of antibodies
  • lag phase interval before exponential growth of a microbial population during which cells adjust to a new environment
  • lagging strand strand of DNA made discontinuously by DNA polymerase
  • laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
  • laryngopharynx lower portion of the pharynx that connects to the larynx
  • larynx region of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also referred to as the voice box
  • latent disease disease that goes into a dormant nonreplicative state after the acute disease and can persist in this state for years, with the risk of reactivation back into acute disease
  • latent virus virus that remains dormant in the host genome
  • lateral flow test see immunochromatographic assays
  • leading strand strand of DNA made continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction by DNA polymerase
  • Legionnaires disease atypical pneumonia occurring in older individuals; caused by the inhalation of Legionella pneumophila aerosolized in water
  • leishmaniasis protozoan infection caused by Leishmania spp. and transmitted by sand flies
  • leprosy see Hansen’s disease
  • leptospirosis bacterial infection of the kidney caused by Leptospira spp.; may spread to the liver, lungs, brain, and other organs
  • leukocidin class of exotoxin that targets and lyses leukocytes
  • leukocytes white blood cells of various types, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes
  • leukotrienes lipid-based chemical mediators produced by leukocytes and other tissue cells; promote inflammation and allergic responses
  • lichen symbiotic association of a fungus with an algae or cyanobacterium
  • ligation repair of the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, making the DNA molecule continuous
  • light chains the shorter identical peptide chains of an antibody molecule (two per antibody monomer), composed of variable and constant region segments
  • light-dependent reaction process by which energy from sunlight is absorbed by pigment molecules in photosynthetic membranes and converted into stored chemical energy in the forms of ATP and NADPH
  • light-harvesting complex group of multiple proteins and associated pigments that each may absorb light energy to become excited, and transfer this energy from one pigment molecule to another until the energy is delivered to a reaction center pigment
  • light-independent reaction process by which chemical energy, in the form of ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, is used to fix inorganic CO 2 into organic sugar; usually referred to as the Calvin-Benson cycle
  • lincomycin naturally produced protein synthesis inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  • lincosamides class of protein synthesis inhibitors that are similar to macrolides
  • linked recognition a mechanism whereby a B cell and the helper T cell with which it interacts recognize the same antigen
  • lipase extracellular enzyme that degrades triglycerides
  • lipid bilayer biological membranes composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called unit membrane
  • lipid macromolecule composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen; source of nutrients for organisms, a storage form for carbon and energy, a part of the structure of membranes, and may function as hormones, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and pigments
  • lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid molecules with attached sugars that are found as components of gram-negative outer membranes
  • lipoprotein conjugated protein attached to a lipid
  • listeriosis bacterial disease caused from the ingestion of the microbe Listeria monocytogenes
  • lithotroph chemotroph that uses inorganic chemicals as its electron source; also known as chemoautotroph
  • live attenuated vaccine vaccine with live pathogen that has been attenuated to become less virulent in order to produce an active but subclinical infection
  • liver fluke a trematode worm that affects the bile duct of the liver, including Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica
  • local infection infection in one limited area
  • log phase interval of growth when cells divide exponentially; also known as the exponential growth phase
  • loiasis a disease caused by the parasitic Loa loa worm, which is transmitted by deerflies; adult worms live in the subcutaneous tissue and cause inflammation, swelling, and eye pain as they migrate through the skin and the conjunctiva of the eye
  • lophotrichous having a single tuft of flagella located at one end of a bacterial cell
  • low G+C gram-positive bacteria bacteria that have less than 50% of guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA
  • lumen space inside the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells
  • Lyme disease tickborne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi
  • lymph nodes bean-shaped organs situated throughout the body that contain areas called germinal centers, which are rich in B and T lymphocytes; also contain macrophages and dendritic cells for antigen presentation
  • lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
  • lymphangitis inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
  • lymphogranuloma venereum infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in tropical regions
  • lyophilization rapid freezing, followed by placement under a vacuum, of a material so that water is lost by sublimation, thereby inhibiting microbial growth
  • lysis destruction of the host cell
  • lysogen bacterium carrying the prophage
  • lysogenic conversion (phage conversion) alteration of host characteristics or phenotypes due to the presence of phage
  • lysogenic cycle life cycle of some phages in which the genome of the infecting phage is integrated into the bacterial chromosome and replicated during bacterial reproduction until it excises and enters a lytic phase of the life cycle
  • lysogeny process of integrating the phage into the host genome
  • lysosome an organelle of the endomembrane system that contains digestive enzymes that break down engulfed material such as foodstuffs, infectious particles, or damaged cellular components
  • lytic cycle infection process that leads to the lysis of host cells

Questions & Answers

what is gram staining
Nankya Reply
microbiology?
Bekka
Tell u only
Balu
It's technique to differentiate bacterial species.The method is discovered by Hans Christian Gram. The bacteria is differentiated as gram positive and gram negative on the basis of peptidoglycan layer which is present in cell wall. The gram positive have peptidoglycan layer.
shamali
What is study of morphology ? and it's classification
Maryam
taxonomy
Kamaluddeen
what makes a student to forget what he or she has been taught with easily and how can he or she cope up with it
Samson Reply
to be in touch with subject will help to cope up with the learning life long and also interest matters for subject
shriya
Constant review. And don't worry if you do forget something you always have the option to study it again. Each time you study a certain topic the more it make sense and the more it becomes something natural rather than brute memorization.
Abdi
the cause are many 1.lack of interest . 2. poor attitude to the subject. how can he cope up 1. falling in love with the subject . 2. making it part of you at all times and having determination
Ikilai
understanding the concept and relating whatever course of study with something in his/her day to day activities (i.e in which you are more conversant with in your life).
Kamaluddeen
how many types of cross matching method
umesh
which disease is caused by vicera zoster virus
Timaka Reply
chicken pox
Osuoha
Patients with disseminated herpes zostermay present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In immunocompetent individuals herpes zoster usually is a localised illness, affecting the skin of one or two adjacent dermatomes.
Kamaluddeen
Actually, it is severe abdominal pain thanks
Osuoha
what causes inflammation of the lung?
Samson
what causes the fungi infection of the vigina
Estar Reply
what causes the fungi infection of the vagina?
Estar
poor hygiene of the area and unprotected sex with infected partner
Kamaluddeen
poor hygiene,some times having sex with infected person or when normal flora enters in the vagina
Ikilai
unprotected sex and poor hygiene are the major but keep in mind that there are some other minor causes also
Samson
what brings about dirt in blood
Sumaiyah Reply
So many factors might be the cause viz. Defects of blood capillaries and certain organs like the liver, the kidneys e.t.c
MOHAMMED
with the above any infection of the body easily enters the bloodstream.
MOHAMMED
there may be fevers which cause septicemia
Ikilai
even taking drug, and eating junk foods .
Ikilai
drinking contaminated water and taking drugs which contains chemical and afterwards they gets absorbed in yo the blood stream
Samson
write a essay about gene library's
anaparthi Reply
Structure of bacteria
Maggy Reply
Outline the classification of viruses according to morphology, nucleic acid, type of diseases, antigenic reaction
chilufya Reply
who is da father of microbiology
Mukomya Reply
Lucie pasture
Felicity
Father of microbiology is Anton von Leuuwenhoek
Anshika
mean Luice pasture the father of microbiology
Felicity
Luice pasture is the father of industrial microbiology
Anshika
who is the father of surgery
Talemwa
father of surgery is Sushruta
Agyekum
sushruta is the father of surgery
Ven.phumie
he Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
who is the father of medical microbiology
Naveen
he is Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
Anthony van Lee wen hook
Kamaluddeen
where would we be without microbes
Jessa Reply
nowhere because our body alone also contain billions of microbes.
Edward
in the dreams
Abid
Bangladeshi people's body contain thrice the amount of microbes than regular people.
IamTheMegaExploder
sure?
Kamaluddeen
yah
Kamran
why it was like that
Mمهazn
no where
Mukomya
cocci which are arranged in pairs are called?
umesh
diplococci
vijaya
Cocci are bacterias
Anshika
fimbriae is an organ of ?
umesh
what is the choma like vrius?
PRALHAD
Vibrio cholarea
Kamaluddeen
outline the classification of viruses
chilufya
Fimbriae z an organ of bacteria
Maggy
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the father of micro biology
Yang
concept of primary& secondary metabolism
yamini Reply
who is the father of microbiology
imran Reply
Louis pasture is a father of modern microbiology
Bharat
anton van leuwen kook
Kavi
anton van is father of ancient microbiolgy
Bharat
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Bharat
g
Red
Louis pasture
Atar
what can cause serious stomachache after treating ulcer and typhoid and symptoms persist to leave.
Ven.phumie
Anthony van
Nankya
what is lumbar puncture
amulya Reply
To get the cerespinalfluid
Alphonsia
what is the role of glutamic acid in consideration to ulcer healin
Hyrin Reply
what is role of glutamic acid in peptidoglycan
Pooja Reply
what's the name of Greek word were nursing came from?
Joyce
Take care.
Alphonsia
thanks
Joyce
glutamic acid helps in synthesis of protein
Ganesh
i want some explantion on gram staining
Nankya
gram (+ve) or gram(-ve)
Atar
gram stain is defined as identification methods for bacteria
vijaya
Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative). The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique.
Atar

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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