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Part 3

After diagnosing Barbara with pneumonia, the PA writes her a prescription for amoxicillin, a commonly-prescribed type of penicillin derivative. More than a week later, despite taking the full course as directed, Barbara still feels weak and is not fully recovered, although she is still able to get through her daily activities. She returns to the health center for a follow-up visit.

Many types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses can cause pneumonia. Amoxicillin targets the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Since the amoxicillin has not resolved Barbara’s symptoms, the PA concludes that the causative agent probably lacks peptidoglycan, meaning that the pathogen could be a virus, a fungus, or a bacterium that lacks peptidoglycan. Another possibility is that the pathogen is a bacterium containing peptidoglycan but has developed resistance to amoxicillin.

  • How can the PA definitively identify the cause of Barbara’s pneumonia?
  • What form of treatment should the PA prescribe, given that the amoxicillin was ineffective?

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Filamentous appendages

Many bacterial cells have protein appendages embedded within their cell envelopes that extend outward, allowing interaction with the environment. These appendages can attach to other surfaces, transfer DNA, or provide movement. Filamentous appendages include fimbriae, pili, and flagella.

Fimbriae and pili

Fimbriae and pili are structurally similar and, because differentiation between the two is problematic, these terms are often used interchangeably. J.A. Garnetta et al. “Structural Insights Into the Biogenesis and Biofilm Formation by the Escherichia coli Common Pilus.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 no. 10 (2012):3950–3955. T. Proft, E.N. Baker. “Pili in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria—Structure, Assembly and Their Role in Disease.” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 66 (2009):613. The term fimbriae commonly refers to short bristle-like proteins projecting from the cell surface by the hundreds. Fimbriae enable a cell to attach to surfaces and to other cells. For pathogenic bacteria, adherence to host cells is important for colonization, infectivity, and virulence. Adherence to surfaces is also important in biofilm formation.

The term pili (singular: pilus) commonly refers to longer, less numerous protein appendages that aid in attachment to surfaces ( [link] ). A specific type of pilus, called the F pilus or sex pilus , is important in the transfer of DNA between bacterial cells, which occurs between members of the same generation when two cells physically transfer or exchange parts of their respective genomes (see How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity ).

A micrograph of two cells connected by two long strings labeled pilli.
Bacteria may produce two different types of protein appendages that aid in surface attachment. Fimbriae typically are more numerous and shorter, whereas pili (shown here) are longer and less numerous per cell. (credit: modification of work by American Society for Microbiology)

Questions & Answers

bacteria growth curve
sani Reply
No bacteria's don't grow curvey. Curve is a shape for a bacteria not growth
KINGSFORD
What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
KINGSFORD Reply
What's a multicellular organism?
KINGSFORD
multicellular organisms is an organism composed of many cells which are to varying degree integrated and independent.
Ruth
Boiling of milk to kill germs is called?
Kasigwa
pasteurization
Aiyedun
pasteurization
Katta
kadha
Katta
pasteurization
Gomathi
what is microscopic
monish
Pasteurization
Hosy
what are Flora
Hosy
you mean like the normal flora?
Tenucharity
pasteurization has to do with killing of the harmful microbes present for safe consumption. Eg. pasteurized yoghurt beside the bacteria that are supposed to be present, there may be harmful ones that have been killed
Tenucharity
Can someone explain flora
KINGSFORD
what is cell?
Anita Reply
the cell is the functional and structural unit of the body
Ruth
yes ur right
Kasigwa
who add me
Wali
hy
Katta
hy
Shivangi
basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life.
Haru
hi
Ruth
hi
Haru
coming Oct 2 I have a exam on microbiology
Haru
okay all the best
Ruth
hi
sachin
hi
Ruth
plz bro send question of microbiology
umesh
structural and functional unit of the life
monish
this is not the correct answer
Alanna Reply
why
Hayat
why not
Zaajid
what is the correct answer?
vannessa
where is question
Zaajid
ask you question
Zaajid
What are mitochondria
Hayat
what is mitochondria
Hayat
who is the father of microbiology
T-
not
Hayat
Antonie Van Luweenhoek
Ravikumar
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the Cell. And is the cell organelle which helps cell in generation of energy by Cellular Respiration
Ravikumar
Mitochondria are threadlike structuresbounded by double membrane,and serves as the power house of the cell
Felicity
can I get notes on introduction to microbiology just started I have no idea please
rita
Mitochondria is a membrane bounded structure, it's sausage in shape and has inner and outer membrane. The inner membrane is folded at the surface called cristae which project to form matrix. They function as the power house for the cell.
KINGSFORD
Rita are you a medilab student?
KINGSFORD
the father of microbiology is Luis pasture
Able
Erythromycin--------(+++) Cefuroxine ------------(++++) Chloramphenicol --(++) Vancomycin ---------(++++) please what does the above result means. under urine culture and sensitivity?
Kwame
francesco redi was the first to challenge spontaneous generation not pasteur
Alanna
Rita are you a medilab student? no please am a public health student
rita
kwame Evans this result ll mean that the bacterial in the urine can be remedy / killed by this antibacterial (cefuroxime and the rest are antibiotics
rita
Rita Appiah thanks.
Kwame
contact backstage
Emmanuel
what is a vacual
Star Reply
What is microbiology
Nji Reply
it is the study of microscopic organisms and basically their relation to the environment
Tenucharity
what is elements
Erneet Reply
an Element is a substance that can not be further decomposed by ordinary chemical means.
vannessa
can i get notes of biochemistry
Sneha Reply
yep why not
Abdullah
what is microbiology?
Gayanjali Reply
what is malaria
Gayanjali
bios- life/living things micro- small things that cannot be seen with the naked eye In other words the study of living things that cannot be seen with the naked eye but with the help of a microscope
Coltuneac
logos- science
Coltuneac
it is 10 to the power minus 6 biology which studies life forms on those scales including metabolism , physiology, nutrition requirements
barun
what are prokarytes
NDIMUKIKA Reply
A prokaryotic is a unicellular organanism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus ,mitochondria or other any membrane bound organelle. .......
Maryam
in prokaryotic nucleus is not developed and cell organelles are absent
Harshad
how is one who is feeling blockage in the chest with mucus be diagnosed
Essy Reply
be talking sepitol every morning
Ikenna
is that all?
Ven.phumie
What is prions
Sangeeta Reply
Prions are microscopic organism which have no nucleic acid, no nuclear bounded membrane and affect the brain of animals like sheep's and human such a CJD and Kuru
KINGSFORD
is tuberculosis a viral infection?
hildar Reply
No. It is a Bacterial Infection.
Orooj
what are zn staining
Evelyn Reply
full meaning zeil neelson staining
kezia
By using zn stain we diagnose / examine acid fast bacilli .
Deepak
explain hw bacteria grows
Kanyago Reply
Hw does bacteria grow?
Kanyago
Binary fission
Sangeeta
three successive phase comes in bacteria growth i.e lag phase/adaptation phase ,log phase/exponential phase ,death phase when it is in fermentation process .
Deepak
Bacteria's don't grow by binary fission, they're grow through Biofilm formation, through colonies and transformation of clear broth medium to a turbid suspension
KINGSFORD
what is virous
monish
How do a cell carry out life activity on it own in respiration, excretion and reproduction?
KINGSFORD
what are eukaryotes
Kakande Reply
eukaryotes simply refers to a cell who does not have a definite nucleus.
Franca

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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