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Some Viral Adhesins and Their Host Attachment Sites
Pathogen Disease Adhesin Attachment Site
Influenzavirus Influenza Hemagglutinin Sialic acid of respiratory and intestinal cells
Herpes simplex virus I or II Oral herpes, genital herpes Glycoproteins gB, gC, gD Heparan sulfate on mucosal surfaces of the mouth and genitals
Human immunodeficiency virus HIV/AIDS Glycoprotein gp120 CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4 of immune system cells

Antigenic variation in viruses

Antigenic variation also occurs in certain types of enveloped viruses, including influenza viruses, which exhibit two forms of antigenic variation: antigenic drift and antigenic shift ( [link] ). Antigenic drift is the result of point mutations causing slight changes in the spike proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). On the other hand, antigenic shift is a major change in spike proteins due to gene reassortment. This reassortment for antigenic shift occurs typically when two different influenza viruses infect the same host.

The rate of antigenic variation in influenza viruses is very high, making it difficult for the immune system to recognize the many different strains of Influenzavirus. Although the body may develop immunity to one strain through natural exposure or vaccination, antigenic variation results in the continual emergence of new strains that the immune system will not recognize. This is the main reason that vaccines against Influenzavirus must be given annually. Each year’s influenza vaccine provides protection against the most prevalent strains for that year, but new or different strains may be more prevalent the following year.

a) antigenic drift results from genetic mutations. Virus A is shown with different shaped pieces on the outside labeled neuraminidase and hemagglutinin. The mutated hemagglutinin has a different shape. B) Antigenic shift results from genetic reassortment. Virus A has green hemagglutinin and orange neuraminidase on the outside. Virus B has purple neuraminidase and blue hemagglutinin. These both enter the same host cell. Virus C is then produced which has the neuraminidase from virus A and the hemagglutinin from virus B.
Antigenic drift and antigenic shift in influenza viruses. (a) In antigenic drift, mutations in the genes for the surface proteins neuraminidase and/or hemagglutinin result in small antigenic changes over time. (b) In antigenic shift, simultaneous infection of a cell with two different influenza viruses results in mixing of the genes. The resultant virus possesses a mixture of the proteins of the original viruses. Influenza pandemics can often be traced to antigenic shifts.
  • Describe the role of adhesins in viral tropism.
  • Explain the difference between antigenic drift and antigenic shift.

Key concepts and summary

  • Virulence factors contribute to a pathogen’s ability to cause disease.
  • Exoenzymes and toxins allow pathogens to invade host tissue and cause tissue damage. Exoenzymes are classified according to the macromolecule they target and exotoxins are classified based on their mechanism of action.
  • Bacterial toxins include endotoxin and exotoxins . Endotoxin is the lipid A component of the LPS of the gram-negative cell envelope. Exotoxins are proteins secreted mainly by gram-positive bacteria, but also are secreted by gram-negative bacteria.
  • Bacterial pathogens may evade the host immune response by producing capsules to avoid phagocytosis, surviving the intracellular environment of phagocytes, degrading antibodies, or through antigenic variation .
  • Viral pathogens use adhesins for initiating infections and antigenic variation to avoid immune defenses.
  • Influenza viruses use both antigenic drift and antigenic shift to avoid being recognized by the immune system.

Fill in the blank

The glycoprotein adhesion gp120 on HIV must interact with __________ on some immune cells as the first step in the process of infecting the cell.

CD4

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Adhesins are usually located on __________ of the pathogen and are composed mainly of __________ and __________.

surface; proteins; sugars

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The Shiga and diphtheria toxins target __________ in host cells.

protein synthesis

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Antigenic __________ is the result of reassortment of genes responsible for the production of influenza virus spike proteins between different virus particles while in the same host, whereas antigenic __________ is the result of point mutations in the spike proteins.

shift; drift

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Questions & Answers

What is the different between abiogensis and biogensis
RAPHERA Reply
Abiogenesis is the process by wich living organisms arises from a nonliving matter while Biogenis organisms arises from living matter
Nji
Abiogenesis deals with the law of spountaneous generation which talks about organisms arising from non-living organic matters while biogenesis deals with organisms arising from living organic matters
Ademola
What are the importance of mircobiology
RAPHERA
mechanisms of microbiology
Erneet Reply
What is immunizations
RAPHERA Reply
the action of making a person or animal immune to infection, typically by inoculation.
Pup
pls someone should help with ANTIMICROBIAL MNEMONICS
Shuaib Reply
Aminoglycosides: Charasteristics of Aminoglycosides Nymonics; (AMINO)  Active against Aerobic gram negative Organisms Mechanism Of resistance is by Modifying enzymes Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to 30s ribosomal subunit Nephrotoxic Ototoxic Members  Of Aminoglycosides: Nymonics: (ST
Najeebul
Please can some briefly describe the germ theory?
Michael Reply
hyy all
Shuaib
pls someone should help with ANTIMICROBIAL MNEMONICS
Shuaib
which drug can be used to treat gonococus?
Lambon Reply
Madication - Antibiotic " and Gonorrhoea can be treat with Antibiotic
Maryam
Penicillin -An antibiotic
Michael
Ciprofloxacin tablets also an antibiotic
Michael
Ofloxacin is also antibiotics
Ikenna
yes
Elli
sory no fot gonococus
Elli
what are eukaryotes
Kakande Reply
eukaryotes simply refers to a cell who does not have a definite nucleus.
Franca
Eukaryotic cell has a true nucleus
arfa
what is right answer ?
krishna
I can remember now truly that eukaryotes have true nucleus.I was referring to procaryotes.
Franca
Eukaryotes have got true nuclues
Ede
they have a nucleus, larger than prokaryotes
Alanna
The eukaryotes cell are found in advance organisms.
Franca
Eukaryotes are multicellular organism which has a membrane bounded structure mostly found in animals and some plant cells
KINGSFORD
bacteria growth curve
sani Reply
No bacteria's don't grow curvey. Curve is a shape for a bacteria not growth
KINGSFORD
What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
KINGSFORD Reply
What's a multicellular organism?
KINGSFORD
multicellular organisms is an organism composed of many cells which are to varying degree integrated and independent.
Ruth
Boiling of milk to kill germs is called?
Kasigwa
pasteurization
Aiyedun
pasteurization
Katta
kadha
Katta
pasteurization
Gomathi
what is microscopic
monish
Pasteurization
Hosy
what are Flora
Hosy
you mean like the normal flora?
Tenucharity
pasteurization has to do with killing of the harmful microbes present for safe consumption. Eg. pasteurized yoghurt beside the bacteria that are supposed to be present, there may be harmful ones that have been killed
Tenucharity
Can someone explain flora
KINGSFORD
what are the normal Flora on the ff anatomical sites? Skin, nose, ear,oral cavity, intestines and the vagina
Hosy
what is cell?
Anita Reply
the cell is the functional and structural unit of the body
Ruth
yes ur right
Kasigwa
who add me
Wali
hy
Katta
hy
Shivangi
basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life.
Haru
hi
Ruth
hi
Haru
coming Oct 2 I have a exam on microbiology
Haru
okay all the best
Ruth
hi
sachin
hi
Ruth
plz bro send question of microbiology
umesh
structural and functional unit of the life
monish
this is not the correct answer
Alanna Reply
why
Hayat
why not
Zaajid
what is the correct answer?
vannessa
where is question
Zaajid
ask you question
Zaajid
What are mitochondria
Hayat
what is mitochondria
Hayat
who is the father of microbiology
T-
not
Hayat
Antonie Van Luweenhoek
Ravikumar
Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the Cell. And is the cell organelle which helps cell in generation of energy by Cellular Respiration
Ravikumar
Mitochondria are threadlike structuresbounded by double membrane,and serves as the power house of the cell
Felicity
can I get notes on introduction to microbiology just started I have no idea please
rita
Mitochondria is a membrane bounded structure, it's sausage in shape and has inner and outer membrane. The inner membrane is folded at the surface called cristae which project to form matrix. They function as the power house for the cell.
KINGSFORD
Rita are you a medilab student?
KINGSFORD
the father of microbiology is Luis pasture
Able
Erythromycin--------(+++) Cefuroxine ------------(++++) Chloramphenicol --(++) Vancomycin ---------(++++) please what does the above result means. under urine culture and sensitivity?
Kwame
francesco redi was the first to challenge spontaneous generation not pasteur
Alanna
Rita are you a medilab student? no please am a public health student
rita
kwame Evans this result ll mean that the bacterial in the urine can be remedy / killed by this antibacterial (cefuroxime and the rest are antibiotics
rita
Rita Appiah thanks.
Kwame
contact backstage
Emmanuel
what is a vacual
Star Reply
What is microbiology
Nji Reply
it is the study of microscopic organisms and basically their relation to the environment
Tenucharity
what is elements
Erneet Reply
an Element is a substance that can not be further decomposed by ordinary chemical means.
vannessa
can i get notes of biochemistry
Sneha Reply
yep why not
Abdullah

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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