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Figure a is an electron micrograph that shows a a shpere within a larger blob-shaped structure. Figure b shows raised red dots on a person’s back.
(a) Varicella-zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, has an enveloped icosahedral capsid visible in this transmission electron micrograph. Its double-stranded DNA genome becomes incorporated in the host DNA. (b) After a period of latency, the virus can reactivate in the form of shingles, usually manifesting as a painful, localized rash on one side of the body. (credit a: modification of work by Erskine Palmer and B.G. Partin—scale-bar data from Matt Russell; credit b: modification of work by Rosmarie Voegtli)

Latent viruses may remain dormant by existing as circular viral genome molecules outside of the host chromosome. Others become proviruses by integrating into the host genome. During dormancy, viruses do not cause any symptoms of disease and may be difficult to detect. A patient may be unaware that he or she is carrying the virus unless a viral diagnostic test has been performed.

Chronic infection

A chronic infection is a disease with symptoms that are recurrent or persistent over a long time. Some viral infections can be chronic if the body is unable to eliminate the virus. HIV is an example of a virus that produces a chronic infection, often after a long period of latency. Once a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus can be detected in tissues continuously thereafter, but untreated patients often experience no symptoms for years. However, the virus maintains chronic persistence through several mechanisms that interfere with immune function, including preventing expression of viral antigens on the surface of infected cells, altering immune cells themselves, restricting expression of viral genes, and rapidly changing viral antigens through mutation. Eventually, the damage to the immune system results in progression of the disease leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The various mechanisms that HIV uses to avoid being cleared by the immune system are also used by other chronically infecting viruses, including the hepatitis C virus.

  • In what two ways can a virus manage to maintain a persistent infection?

Life cycle of viruses with plant hosts

Plant viruses are more similar to animal viruses than they are to bacteriophages. Plant viruses may be enveloped or non-enveloped. Like many animal viruses, plant viruses can have either a DNA or RNA genome and be single stranded or double stranded. However, most plant viruses do not have a DNA genome; the majority have a +ssRNA genome, which acts like messenger RNA (mRNA). Only a minority of plant viruses have other types of genomes.

Plant viruses may have a narrow or broad host range. For example, the citrus tristeza virus infects only a few plants of the Citrus genus, whereas the cucumber mosaic virus infects thousands of plants of various plant families. Most plant viruses are transmitted by contact between plants, or by fungi, nematodes, insects, or other arthropods that act as mechanical vectors. However, some viruses can only be transferred by a specific type of insect vector; for example, a particular virus might be transmitted by aphids but not whiteflies. In some cases, viruses may also enter healthy plants through wounds, as might occur due to pruning or weather damage.

Questions & Answers

it could be hormonal in balanced kindly see a doctor thanks
Precious Reply
U mean u have never had Ur period before?
Tee Reply
pregnancy
Cerah Reply
how many months does you notice that problem
pavan Reply
I am 21 years old and I haven't seen my period,what could be the cause?
Faith Reply
Please what is the solution to the problem?
Faith
abnormal cytobacteria ukrine
dzaram Reply
my period dos'nt flow as normal Pls what could be the cause?
Chinelo Reply
No some are beneficial & others are pathogenic
Diuniceous Reply
are all bacteria dangerous
Lorretha Reply
What is a bacteria?
Nang Reply
PLEASE WHAT IS CULTURE ?
Emmanuella Reply
Which type of cytoskeletal fiber is important in the formation of the nuclear lamina?
shaletta Reply
Nice, explanation about Gram's bacterial differential procedure
surendra Reply
Beer, cheese, bread, are orange juice is not fermentation
shaletta Reply
describe gram staining
Aditi Reply
if I'm not mistaken(no googling) it's the testing of bacteria to see whether it is gram positive or negative... it is clinically useful because if you have a gram positive person you don't want to give them gram-negative medicine
Coach
it is a procedure in which we have know about bactrria either gram positive or gram negative after cultivation of bacteria on agat plates we put crystal voilet then iodine then de colorizer and then if not retain voilet colur so put safranin for gram negative bacterai in case of retaining voilet
badshah

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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