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Life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. 1 - Insporulated oocysts are shed in the cat’s feces. 2 – Intermediate host in nature (including birds and rodents) become infected after ingesting soil, water or plant material contaminated with oocysts. 3 – Oocysts transform into tachyzoites shortly after ingestion. These tachyzoites localize in neural and muscle tissue and develop into tissue cyst bradyzoites. 4 - Cats eat infected animals (such as rodents or birsds) and shed unsporulated oocysts. 5 – Intermediate hosts (such as pigs and cows) ingeset oocysts from contaminated water, soil, or plant material. 6 – Humans can become infected when they eat undercooked meat of infected animals harboring tissue cysts. 7 – Humans can also become infected when they consume food or water contaminate with cat feces or by handling fecal-contaminated soil or cat’s litter box. 8 – Humans can also become infected via the placenta from fetus to mother. 10 – Tissue cysts can form in skeletal muscle, myocardium, brain, and eyes. 11 – Diagnosis of congenital infection can be achieved by detecting T. gondii DNA in amniotic fluid using molecular methods such as PCR.
The infectious cycle of Toxoplasma gondii . (credit: “diagram”: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit “cat”: modification of work by “KaCey97078”/Flickr)
A) A micrograph of curved cells with a nucleus. B) micrograph of a sphere with many smaller spheres inside.
(a) Giemsa-stained Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites from a smear of peritoneal fluid obtained from a mouse inoculated with T. gondii . Tachyzoites are typically crescent shaped with a prominent, centrally placed nucleus. (b) Microscopic cyst containing T. gondii from mouse brain tissue. Thousands of resting parasites (stained red) are contained in a thin parasite cyst wall. (credit a: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; credit b: modification of work by USDA)
  • How does T. gondii infect humans?

Babesiosis

Babesiosis is a rare zoonotic infectious disease caused by Babesia spp . These parasitic protozoans infect various wild and domestic animals and can be transmitted to humans by black-legged Ixodes ticks. In humans, Babesia infect red blood cells and replicate inside the cell until it ruptures. The Babesia released from the ruptured red blood cell continue the growth cycle by invading other red blood cells. Patients may be asymptomatic, but those who do have symptoms often initially experience malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. In rare cases, particularly in asplenic (absence of the spleen) patients, the elderly, and patients with AIDS , babesiosis may resemble falciparum malaria, with high fever, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin or blood in urine), jaundice, and renal failure, and the infection can be fatal. Previously acquired asymptomatic Babesia infection may become symptomatic if a splenectomy is performed.

Diagnosis is based mainly on the microscopic observation of parasites in blood smears ( [link] ). Serologic and antibody detection by IFA can also be performed and PCR-based tests are available. Many people do not require clinical intervention for Babesia infections, however, serious infections can be cleared with a combination of atovaquone and azithromycin or a combination of clindamycin and quinine .

Micrograph of red blood cells with dark circles inside.
In this blood smear from a patient with babesiosis, Babesia parasites can be observed in the red blood cells. (credit: modification of work by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Chagas disease

Also called American trypanosomiasis , Chagas disease is a zoonosis classified as a neglected tropical disease (NTD). It is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and is most commonly transmitted to animals and people through the feces of triatomine bugs. The triatomine bug is nicknamed the kissing bug because it frequently bites humans on the face or around the eyes; the insect often defecates near the bite and the infected fecal matter may be rubbed into the bite wound by the bitten individual ( [link] ). The bite itself is painless and, initially, many people show no signs of the disease. Alternative modes of transmission include contaminated blood transfusions, organ transplants from infected donors, and congenital transmission from mother to fetus.

Questions & Answers

it could be hormonal in balanced kindly see a doctor thanks
Precious Reply
U mean u have never had Ur period before?
Tee Reply
pregnancy
Cerah Reply
how many months does you notice that problem
pavan Reply
I am 21 years old and I haven't seen my period,what could be the cause?
Faith Reply
Please what is the solution to the problem?
Faith
abnormal cytobacteria ukrine
dzaram Reply
my period dos'nt flow as normal Pls what could be the cause?
Chinelo Reply
No some are beneficial & others are pathogenic
Diuniceous Reply
are all bacteria dangerous
Lorretha Reply
What is a bacteria?
Nang Reply
PLEASE WHAT IS CULTURE ?
Emmanuella Reply
Which type of cytoskeletal fiber is important in the formation of the nuclear lamina?
shaletta Reply
Nice, explanation about Gram's bacterial differential procedure
surendra Reply
Beer, cheese, bread, are orange juice is not fermentation
shaletta Reply
describe gram staining
Aditi Reply
if I'm not mistaken(no googling) it's the testing of bacteria to see whether it is gram positive or negative... it is clinically useful because if you have a gram positive person you don't want to give them gram-negative medicine
Coach
it is a procedure in which we have know about bactrria either gram positive or gram negative after cultivation of bacteria on agat plates we put crystal voilet then iodine then de colorizer and then if not retain voilet colur so put safranin for gram negative bacterai in case of retaining voilet
badshah

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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