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a) eye with turned in eyelids. B) photo of eye surgery.
(a) If trachoma is not treated early with antibiotics, scarring on the eyelid can lead to trichiasis, a condition in which the eyelashes turn inward. (b) Trichiasis leads to blindness if not corrected by surgery, as shown here. (credit b: modification of work by Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health&Medicine)
  • Why is trachoma rare in the United States?

Safe eradication of trachoma

Though uncommon in the United States and other developed nations, trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, with more than 4 million people at immediate risk of blindness from trichiasis. The vast majority of those affected by trachoma live in Africa and the Middle East in isolated rural or desert communities with limited access to clean water and sanitation. These conditions provide an environment conducive to the growth and spread of Chlamydia trachomatis , the bacterium that causes trachoma, via wastewater and eye-seeking flies.

In response to this crisis, recent years have seen major public health efforts aimed at treating and preventing trachoma. The Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020), coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO), promotes an initiative dubbed “SAFE,” which stands for “Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement.” The Carter Center , a charitable, nongovernment organization led by former US President Jimmy Carter, has partnered with the WHO to promote the SAFE initiative in six of the most critically impacted nations in Africa. Through its Trachoma Control Program, the Carter Center trains and equips local surgeons to correct trichiasis and distributes antibiotics to treat trachoma. The program also promotes better personal hygiene through health education and improves sanitation by funding the construction of household latrines. This reduces the prevalence of open sewage, which provides breeding grounds for the flies that spread trachoma.

Bacterial keratitis

Keratitis can have many causes, but bacterial keratitis is most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and/or Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Contact lens users are particularly at risk for such an infection because S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa both adhere well to the surface of the lenses. Risk of infection can be greatly reduced by proper care of contact lenses and avoiding wearing lenses overnight. Because the infection can quickly lead to blindness, prompt and aggressive treatment with antibiotics is important. The causative agent may be identified using bacterial cultures, Gram stain, and diagnostic biochemical, antigenic, or nucleic acid profile tests of the isolated pathogen.

  • Why are contact lens wearers at greater risk for developing keratitis?

Biofilms and infections of the skin and eyes

When treating bacterial infections of the skin and eyes, it is important to consider that few such infections can be attributed to a single pathogen. While biofilms may develop in other parts of the body, they are especially relevant to skin infections (such as those caused by S. aureus or P. aeruginosa ) because of their prevalence in chronic skin wounds. Biofilms develop when bacteria (and sometimes fungi) attach to a surface and produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in which cells of multiple organisms may be embedded. When a biofilm develops on a wound, it may interfere with the natural healing process as well as diagnosis and treatment.

Questions & Answers

who is the father of microbiology
kasia Reply
how microbial proteins are used to diagnose infectious diseases
Gift Reply
microbes are cultured on industrial scale and then their secretions are extracted...I think that's called downstream processing
Chaitanya
in which language is the following sentence in omne vivum ex vivo
Chetan Reply
What are the five types of serological tests used to identify microorganism in the laboratory?
Prudence Reply
what is mycobacteria
Taslim Reply
what is gram staining
Nankya Reply
microbiology?
Bekka
It's technique to differentiate bacterial species.The method is discovered by Hans Christian Gram. The bacteria is differentiated as gram positive and gram negative on the basis of peptidoglycan layer which is present in cell wall. The gram positive have peptidoglycan layer.
shamali
What is study of morphology ? and it's classification
Maryam
taxonomy
Kamaluddeen
define the microbes
Saro
word microbes from microns.
Jayeeta
who is the father of microbiology?
Deborah
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
shamali
what makes a student to forget what he or she has been taught with easily and how can he or she cope up with it
Samson Reply
to be in touch with subject will help to cope up with the learning life long and also interest matters for subject
shriya
Constant review. And don't worry if you do forget something you always have the option to study it again. Each time you study a certain topic the more it make sense and the more it becomes something natural rather than brute memorization.
Abdi
the cause are many 1.lack of interest . 2. poor attitude to the subject. how can he cope up 1. falling in love with the subject . 2. making it part of you at all times and having determination
Ikilai
understanding the concept and relating whatever course of study with something in his/her day to day activities (i.e in which you are more conversant with in your life).
Kamaluddeen
how many types of cross matching method
umesh
which disease is caused by vicera zoster virus
Timaka Reply
chicken pox
Osuoha
Patients with disseminated herpes zostermay present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In immunocompetent individuals herpes zoster usually is a localised illness, affecting the skin of one or two adjacent dermatomes.
Kamaluddeen
Actually, it is severe abdominal pain thanks
Osuoha
what causes inflammation of the lung?
Samson
what causes the fungi infection of the vigina
Estar Reply
what causes the fungi infection of the vagina?
Estar
poor hygiene of the area and unprotected sex with infected partner
Kamaluddeen
poor hygiene,some times having sex with infected person or when normal flora enters in the vagina
Ikilai
unprotected sex and poor hygiene are the major but keep in mind that there are some other minor causes also
Samson
what brings about dirt in blood
Sumaiyah Reply
So many factors might be the cause viz. Defects of blood capillaries and certain organs like the liver, the kidneys e.t.c
MOHAMMED
with the above any infection of the body easily enters the bloodstream.
MOHAMMED
there may be fevers which cause septicemia
Ikilai
even taking drug, and eating junk foods .
Ikilai
drinking contaminated water and taking drugs which contains chemical and afterwards they gets absorbed in yo the blood stream
Samson
write a essay about gene library's
anaparthi Reply
Structure of bacteria
Maggy Reply
Outline the classification of viruses according to morphology, nucleic acid, type of diseases, antigenic reaction
chilufya Reply
who is da father of microbiology
Mukomya Reply
Lucie pasture
Felicity
Father of microbiology is Anton von Leuuwenhoek
Anshika
mean Luice pasture the father of microbiology
Felicity
Luice pasture is the father of industrial microbiology
Anshika
who is the father of surgery
Talemwa
father of surgery is Sushruta
Agyekum
sushruta is the father of surgery
Ven.phumie
he Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
who is the father of medical microbiology
Naveen
he is Anthony van Lee wen hock
Ikilai
Anthony van Lee wen hook
Kamaluddeen
where would we be without microbes
Jessa Reply
nowhere because our body alone also contain billions of microbes.
Edward
in the dreams
Abid
Bangladeshi people's body contain thrice the amount of microbes than regular people.
IamTheMegaExploder
sure?
Kamaluddeen
yah
Kamran
why it was like that
Mمهazn
no where
Mukomya
cocci which are arranged in pairs are called?
umesh
diplococci
vijaya
Cocci are bacterias
Anshika
fimbriae is an organ of ?
umesh
what is the choma like vrius?
PRALHAD
Vibrio cholarea
Kamaluddeen
outline the classification of viruses
chilufya
Fimbriae z an organ of bacteria
Maggy
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the father of micro biology
Yang
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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