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a) eye with turned in eyelids. B) photo of eye surgery.
(a) If trachoma is not treated early with antibiotics, scarring on the eyelid can lead to trichiasis, a condition in which the eyelashes turn inward. (b) Trichiasis leads to blindness if not corrected by surgery, as shown here. (credit b: modification of work by Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health&Medicine)
  • Why is trachoma rare in the United States?

Safe eradication of trachoma

Though uncommon in the United States and other developed nations, trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, with more than 4 million people at immediate risk of blindness from trichiasis. The vast majority of those affected by trachoma live in Africa and the Middle East in isolated rural or desert communities with limited access to clean water and sanitation. These conditions provide an environment conducive to the growth and spread of Chlamydia trachomatis , the bacterium that causes trachoma, via wastewater and eye-seeking flies.

In response to this crisis, recent years have seen major public health efforts aimed at treating and preventing trachoma. The Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020), coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO), promotes an initiative dubbed “SAFE,” which stands for “Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement.” The Carter Center , a charitable, nongovernment organization led by former US President Jimmy Carter, has partnered with the WHO to promote the SAFE initiative in six of the most critically impacted nations in Africa. Through its Trachoma Control Program, the Carter Center trains and equips local surgeons to correct trichiasis and distributes antibiotics to treat trachoma. The program also promotes better personal hygiene through health education and improves sanitation by funding the construction of household latrines. This reduces the prevalence of open sewage, which provides breeding grounds for the flies that spread trachoma.

Bacterial keratitis

Keratitis can have many causes, but bacterial keratitis is most frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis and/or Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Contact lens users are particularly at risk for such an infection because S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa both adhere well to the surface of the lenses. Risk of infection can be greatly reduced by proper care of contact lenses and avoiding wearing lenses overnight. Because the infection can quickly lead to blindness, prompt and aggressive treatment with antibiotics is important. The causative agent may be identified using bacterial cultures, Gram stain, and diagnostic biochemical, antigenic, or nucleic acid profile tests of the isolated pathogen.

  • Why are contact lens wearers at greater risk for developing keratitis?

Biofilms and infections of the skin and eyes

When treating bacterial infections of the skin and eyes, it is important to consider that few such infections can be attributed to a single pathogen. While biofilms may develop in other parts of the body, they are especially relevant to skin infections (such as those caused by S. aureus or P. aeruginosa ) because of their prevalence in chronic skin wounds. Biofilms develop when bacteria (and sometimes fungi) attach to a surface and produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in which cells of multiple organisms may be embedded. When a biofilm develops on a wound, it may interfere with the natural healing process as well as diagnosis and treatment.

Questions & Answers

what are the prokaryotic
Lungu Reply
prokaraytotic is a unicellular organizm that lacks membrane bound nucleus
Zaajid
and whats eukaryotic
abdiqani
eukaryotic cell are cell which contain anuclues and organells
Zaajid
eukaryotes are the cells that have organells which are protected by membranes
maxo
Explain on the Francisco reddi did to prove the theory of spontaneous generation
Diana Reply
what is parasite
Abdirizack Reply
designing of aseptic area
Aashish Reply
I don't know
Abdirizack
what is rickettsia
DENNIS Reply
what is microbiology
Erasto
Is the science that works with microorganisms.
Rose
richettsa is small microorganisms that cause disease in human like typhus; they are like viruses that can grow only inside living cells, they're transmitted by mites, ticks or lices.
Rose
what is plasmid?
mavis
plasmid is extra chromosomal body present in bacteria...which have additional genetic functions example... antibiotic resistance genes....etc etc
Chaitanya
state the theory of spontaneous generation of micro oranisms and germ theory of disease
UKAMAKA Reply
what are the advantages of high note numerical aperture
Genius Reply
list if non flagellated pritozoa
Mepung Reply
Can someone that's understanding of the Kreb Cycle please explain & breakdown it down to me in the simplest way without giving me the dictionary version or Google version. Basically in there own words of knowledge....!
Kisha
ok
lucas
please can someone help explain positive and negative feedback in simple term
Gum
negative feedback is the arresting of reaction or reverse of the reaction according to the response and postive feed back is the direct response without reversing or arresting a reaction.
Greet
OK
umar
pls can someone explained Kinney stone in memorising in shot time
umar
what tyoebif microorganism will be killed by antibiotic trwatmeant
Mary Reply
I don't really don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone explain & breakdown this in the simplest way please.
Kisha
Anaerobic Respiration in which foodstuffs are partially oxidized, with the release of chemical energy, in a process not involving atmospheric oxygen, such as alcoholic fermentation, in which one of the end products is ethanol.
Muhammad
aerobic respiration A type of respiration in which foodstuffs are completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of chemical energy, in a process requiring atmospheric oxygen.
Muhammad
please can someone explain what pseudomonas species and biofilm is?
uju
Fermentation is the growth of cells or microorganisms in bioreactors (fermenters) to synthesize special products. Fermentation in biochemistry refers to the biodegradation of carbon compounds by cells or organisms under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.
Muhammad
Please under which conditions does pathogens become established in the human tissues and can cause diseases
Atambilla
please the life cycle of plasmodium parasite
mavis
who is John Needham
Mary Reply
John Needham is one of the researcher in microbiology. He also experimented when scientists did not believe animals could arise spontaneously ,but did believe microbes could.
Gum
okay is he late
Mary
by the way what are the list of courses offered by a newly admitted student for microbiology
Mary
Needham's experiments with beef gravy and infusions of plants material reinforced this idea.
Gum
what drugs are given to a person with Otis nerve problem(ear problem)
Gum Reply
good morning to you all.
Muhammad Reply
Dr.A.K.S.P.G. college Akbarpur Ambedkar Nagar
Rajan
Shailesh Vishwakarma BSc 1st year
Rajan
differentiate between eukaryotes en prikaryotes
AKANKWATSA Reply
eukaryotes are organisms with complex cellular structure(presence of nucleus and mitochondrial) like plants and animals whilst prokaryotes are organisms with simple cellular structure (absence of nucleus, mitochondrial) like arthropods.
Seidu
hlo
Shagufta
hii
dr
hello sir
pankaj
I am Pankaj from bihar
pankaj
I am study in NDRI karnal in btech in dairy
pankaj
I am Pankaj from bihar
pankaj
thanks am studying biomedical sciences in zambia.chikankata
Sharon
Am a studying Disease Control in Ghana(kintampo)
Seidu
I'm studying Environmental health in Zimbabwe 🇿🇼
trust
am Joyce mwale studying nursing in Lusaka Zambia
Joyce
hi pankaj
Shailesh
hi frds iam from India
Nevil
IAM studying degree (micro biology)
Nevil
Hi I am microbiologist
Muhammad
Hi friends I'm from Nigeria studying Microbiology
uju
i am biotechnologist from pakistan
Saddam
hi feds iam from india
Shibanjan
hi
Krishna
india
Krishna
hy frnds am from Uganda
AKANKWATSA
am studying nursing/midwifery n kampala
AKANKWATSA
I'm Gum Joseph Kakuu from Ghana,I'm studying RGN in nursing Jirapa.
Gum
I'm Hellen from Kenya studying applied biology
Hellen
I live in india
Krishna
am studying biotechnology
Krishna
am maryjoy uwaoma from Nigeria,I am studying microbiology in NSUKKA NIGERIA
Mary
Nice meeting You people hear
Seidu
thanks you.
Gum
can someone in there own words in the simplest way breakdown what aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation means please and not from the dictionary version...!
Kisha
what are the cultivation and identification of microorganisms
Algel Reply
ransport media.basic culture media.enriched media..differential media .indetification media
AKANKWATSA
algel th above are some v th basic medias for bacterial growth
AKANKWATSA
factors that can Prone the host to get disease
Linda Reply
what are the factors that prones host to get disease
Linda
HELLO
Hashim
Not sure about it, can you tell us Linda?
KINGSFORD
please I want to know the factors that prones host to get disease
Linda
please Linda we have internal and external factors. internal factors are within our body cavities.eg mother having TB giving it to her child,and the others. external factors are within our surrounding environment which include our daily activities(bathing, buying food and the others)
Gum
I don't understand aerobic respiration anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Can someone that do give me a short & simple breakdown.
Kisha
pliz kisha ..aerobic respiration is th typ v repiration whre organisms use oxgyen for survival while anaerobic respiration is whre organisms survive without oxgyen at all.these use carbondioxide
AKANKWATSA
Practice MCQ 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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