<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Table titled: Common functional groups found in biomolecules; 3 columns, name, functional group and class of compound.  Aldehyde has a red C  double bonded O and an H; the C is also bound to a black R. This is found in carbohydrates. Amine has a red C double bonded to an O and single bonded to an NH. The C and the N are each also bound to a black R. This is found in proteins. Amino has a red NH2 bound to a black R. This is found in amino acids and proteins. Phosphate has a red PO3H2; the P is also bound to a black R. This is found in nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP. Carbonyl has a red C double bonded to an O; the C is also bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides. Carboxylic acid has a red C double bonded to an O and to an OH; the C is also bound to a black R. This is found in amino acids, proteins, and fatty acids. Ester has a red C double bonded to an O and single bonded to another O. The C is bound to a black R and the single bonded O is also bound to a black R. This is found in lipids and nucleic acids. Ether has a red O bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in disaccharides, polysaccharides, and lipids. Hydroxyl has a red OH bound to a black R; this is found in alcohols, monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Ketone has a red C double bonded to an O; the C is also bound to 2 black Rs. This is found in carbohydrates. Methyl has a red CH3 bound to a black R. This is found in methylated compounds such as methyl alcohols and methyl esters. Sulfhydryl has a black R bound to a red SH.. This is found in amino acids and proteins


Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules. Functional groups combine with the chain to form biomolecules. Because these biomolecules are typically large, we call them macromolecule s. Many biologically relevant macromolecules are formed by linking together a great number of identical, or very similar, smaller organic molecules. The smaller molecules act as building blocks and are called monomer s , and the macromolecules that result from their linkage are called polymer s . Cells and cell structures include four main groups of carbon-containing macromolecules: polysaccharides , proteins , lipids , and nucleic acids . The first three groups of molecules will be studied throughout this chapter. The biochemistry of nucleic acids will be discussed in Biochemistry of the Genome .

Of the many possible ways that monomers may be combined to yield polymers, one common approach encountered in the formation of biological macromolecules is dehydration synthesis . In this chemical reaction, monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that results in the formation of water molecules as a byproduct:

H—monomer—OH + H—monomer—OH H—monomer—monomer—OH + H 2 O

[link] shows dehydration synthesis of glucose binding together to form maltose and a water molecule. [link] summarizes macromolecules and some of their functions.

A diagram showing dehydration synthesis. On the left are two glucose molecules. The OH attached to carbon 1 in the first molecule is red; as is the H attached to the O on carbon 4 in the second molecule. An arrow indicates points to a new molecule that is missing the red OH and H from the previous image. In their place, the O that was attached to the H on carbon 4 is now also attached to carbon 1 of the other molecule.
In this dehydration synthesis reaction, two molecules of glucose are linked together to form maltose. In the process, a water molecule is formed.
Some Functions of Macromolecules
Macromolecule Functions
Carbohydrates Energy storage, receptors, food, structural role in plants, fungal cell walls, exoskeletons of insects
Lipids Energy storage, membrane structure, insulation, hormones, pigments
Nucleic acids Storage and transfer of genetic information
Proteins Enzymes, structure, receptors, transport, structural role in the cytoskeleton of a cell and the extracellular matrix
  • What is the byproduct of a dehydration synthesis reaction?

Key concepts and summary

  • The most abundant elements in cells are hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  • Life is carbon based. Each carbon atom can bind to another one producing a carbon skeleton that can be straight, branched, or ring shaped.
  • The same numbers and types of atoms may bond together in different ways to yield different molecules called isomers . Isomers may differ in the bonding sequence of their atoms ( structural isomers ) or in the spatial arrangement of atoms whose bonding sequences are the same ( stereoisomers ), and their physical and chemical properties may vary slightly or drastically.
  • Functional groups confer specific chemical properties to molecules bearing them. Common functional groups in biomolecules are hydroxyl, methyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, and sulfhydryl.
  • Macromolecules are polymers assembled from individual units, the monomers , which bind together like building blocks. Many biologically significant macromolecules are formed by dehydration synthesis , a process in which monomers bind together by combining their functional groups and generating water molecules as byproducts.


Aldehydes, amides, carboxylic acids, esters, and ketones all contain carbonyl groups.


Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Two molecules containing the same types and numbers of atoms but different bonding sequences are called enantiomers.


Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

Why are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen the most abundant elements in living matter and, therefore, considered macronutrients?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Identify the functional group in each of the depicted structural formulas.

Figure A has a C bound to an OH. Figure B has a C double bonded to an O as well as a single bonded OH and R. Figure C has an N bound to an R and two Hs.
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

what is prokaryotes
are micro-organisms that have no nucleus e.g bacteria
and they do not possess membrane bound organelles e.g mitochondria
they are single cellular organisms,
all the organelles are embedded in cytoplasm of the cell
They don't possess true nucleus
they're unicellular organisms
they are classified as bacteria and. archaea. bacteria have a cell membrane conposed of peptidoglycan and archaea is composed of psuedomu
organelles are non membraneous as the nucleus
What is the biosynthesis of a bacteria cell
Adesina Reply
biosynthesis is multiple step enzymes catalyze process which occur in bacterial cell
biological way of manufacturing food and utilizes it for growth, multiplication and development
what is microbiology
Kiirya Reply
which organism can not be seen necked eyes is knowm as microbiology
micro can be define as d smallest living organisms dat can not be see wit naked eyes only with the aid of a microscope 🔬
bio means life logy means study
biology can b define as the systematic study of living things
microbiology can be define as the study of tiny organisms, that's according to my understanding
Microbiology is the study of living organisms which cannot be seen by the naked eye but only with the aid of a microscope. These microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, fungi, micro-algae, protozoa and virus.
microbes that can't seen in naked eyes. upto 100micrometer we can see in naked eyes but 1 microns or nanometers are invisible in naked eye.
what is a cell
Oteri Reply
cell can be define as smallest indivisible organism in the body
cell is the smallest unit which makes up the whole body
cell is smallest unit and there are two types prokaryotic cell and eukaryote cell. bacteria a prokaryotic cell which works independently.
nice forum
Which parasite competes with the host for vitamin B12 to cause pernicious anaemia
Diphyllobothrium latum for vit B12
it is also fish tapeworm
Diphyllobothrium sp feed vitB 12
recent trends in microbiology of biofertilizer
Ykomalipriya Reply
using nano technology
what is transposors
Junk DNA, jumping gene.
transposon elements are jumping gene as DNA sequence move from one location to anothet
what is microbiology
Usama Reply
Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions.
what is gram +ve and gram - ve bacteria?
gm- contain lipid layer so it take counter stain during gram staining and pink or red in color but gm + does have thick LPS layer.
what year microbiology started
Robert Koch was the first to detect microorganisms
what appears microorganisms
clear the questions please
was it robert koch or robert hooke?
microbiology word came from microns. study microbes that not recognize in naked eyes.
what are the branch of microbiology
Oyemade Reply
We can basically classify into pure and applied microbiology
what is arabinose operon and it's stucture
Pooja Reply
The L-arabinose operon, also called the ara or araBAD operon, is an operon required for the breakdown of the five-carbon sugar, L-arabinose, in Escherichia coli
kya hum operon ko divide kar skate hain
reactions if viruses to physical and chemical agents?
All viruses contain the following two components: 1) a nucleic acid genome and 2) a protein capsid that covers the genome. Together this is called the nucleocapsid. In addition, many animal viruses contain a 3) lipid envelope. The entire intact virus is called the virion.
assume you have performed a gram stain on a sample of pus from a patients urethra. you see red, nucleated cells and purple rods. what can you conclude
Petty Reply
gram negative bacteria hence gonococcal infection
Study of micro organisation which we cannot see with naked eye...
shyam Reply
Despite their bad reputation, microbes are mostly beneficial or have a neutral effect on our lives. Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
not 'things'...'organisms' like bacterias, viruses and fungi
simi, it's not bacterias but bacteria which is the plural form of the word while bacterium is the singular of it
bacterium is obvio in a singular form but plural of bacterium is bacterias
Richard is right it's bacterium which is the singular form and plural is bacteria. *Bacterias* doesn't exist.
that is microbiology which is deals with microbes only their structure
what is microbiology?
Sandeep Reply
what is microbiology
is the study of small microorganisms that can't be viewed by our naked eyes under a microscope
it's the study of microbes their classification, diversity, their cellular structure and processes, their applications and interaction with other organisms.
what is EMP pathway
which organism is implicated in meningoencephalitis
Peter Reply
Herpes virus
which mold is called dairy mold?
Geotrichum candidum
which infectious agent is the smallest
spore or virus
prion ....it is a single protein in a misfolded form..there is also a theory based on it
yup...m sry
yes it can be turned as a virus
which gram positive bacteria is responsible for food poisoning?
prion is not a living organism yet it is infectoois why
prions are virus like organism. and it is a misfolded protein that may cause disease to us.
Clostridium perfringens, B.cereus
Who is the father of the biology
I have one more question. . that who is the father of botany and medicine? ? can any one tell
define polar bond in simple way
Rashmi Reply
when there is formation of positive and negative poles i.e. one atom is +ve and other is -ve which further results in the dipole moment. Such bond is know as polar bond. It is a convalent bond only.

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?