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A) a computer simulation shows micrtububles as spheres forming a rube structure. This can be drawn as spheres forming a ring; stacks of these rings form the tube. Each ring is 13 polymerized dimers of alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. C) The long tubes that are formed create a structure similar to a railroad track; motor proteins move along the microtubule track to carry vesicles throughout the cell.
(a) Microtubules are hollow structures composed of polymerized tubulin dimers. (b) They are involved in several cellular processes, including the movement of organelles throughout the cytoplasm. Motor proteins carry organelles along microtubule tracks that crisscross the entire cell. (credit b: modification of work by National Institute on Aging)

In addition, microtubules are involved in cell division, forming the mitotic spindle that serves to separate chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. The mitotic spindle is produced by two centrosomes , which are essentially microtubule-organizing centers, at opposite ends of the cell. Each centrosome is composed of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to each other, and each centriole is an array of nine parallel microtubules arranged in triplets ( [link] ).

a) Centrosomes are shown as short tubes. The outside of these tubes is made of 9 sets of microtubule triplets. These sets are held together by lines labeled centrioles. B) Centrosomes are shown on the two poles of a cell. Lines connect the centrosomes to chromosomes in the center of the cell.
(a) A centrosome is composed of two centrioles positioned at right angles to each other. Each centriole is composed of nine triplets of microtubules held together by accessory proteins. (b) In animal cells, the centrosomes (arrows) serve as microtubule-organizing centers of the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
  • Compare and contrast the three types of cytoskeletal structures described in this section.

Mitochondria

The large, complex organelles in which aerobic cellular respiration occurs in eukaryotic cells are called mitochondria ( [link] ). The term “mitochondrion” was first coined by German microbiologist Carl Benda in 1898 and was later connected with the process of respiration by Otto Warburg in 1913. Scientists during the 1960s discovered that mitochondria have their own genome and 70S ribosomes. The mitochondrial genome was found to be bacterial, when it was sequenced in 1976. These findings ultimately supported the endosymbiotic theory proposed by Lynn Margulis , which states that mitochondria originally arose through an endosymbiotic event in which a bacterium capable of aerobic cellular respiration was taken up by phagocytosis into a host cell and remained as a viable intracellular component.

Each mitochondrion has two lipid membranes. The outer membrane is a remnant of the original host cell’s membrane structures. The inner membrane was derived from the bacterial plasma membrane. The electron transport chain for aerobic respiration uses integral proteins embedded in the inner membrane. The mitochondrial matrix , corresponding to the location of the original bacterium’s cytoplasm, is the current location of many metabolic enzymes. It also contains mitochondrial DNA and 70S ribosomes . Invaginations of the inner membrane, called cristae, evolved to increase surface area for the location of biochemical reactions. The folding patterns of the cristae differ among various types of eukaryotic cells and are used to distinguish different eukaryotic organisms from each other.

The mitochondria is shown as a long oval structure. The outside of the structure is an outer membrane. Inside of that is an inner membrane that folds back and forth filling most of the inner part of the mitochondrion. The folds of the inner membrane are labeled cristae and the fluid inside the inner membrane is the mitochondrial matrix. The space between the inner and outer membranes is the inner membrane space. Inside the mitochondrial matrix are found DNA, ribosomes and granules.
Each mitochondrion is surrounded by two membranes, the inner of which is extensively folded into cristae and is the site of the intermembrane space. The mitochondrial matrix contains the mitochondrial DNA, ribosomes, and metabolic enzymes. The transmission electron micrograph of a mitochondrion, on the right, shows both membranes, including cristae and the mitochondrial matrix. (credit “micrograph”: modification of work by Matthew Britton; scale-bar data from Matt Russell)

Questions & Answers

a.o.a can u please tell me five name of Gram +be bacteria
Tahira Reply
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
a.o.a...please send me five name of Gram +ve bacteria
Tahira
staphylococcus ,streptococcus,lactobacillus,mycobacterium,clostridium, bacillus,enterococcus.
Nadiya
thank u so much
Tahira
1. Staphylococci 2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3. Bacillus anthrasis 4. Chlostridium 5. Diplococci
praveen
gram -ve mn knsy hn
Tahira
pseudomonas
Nadiya
wo bhi 5 hon
Tahira
salmonella,proteus,shigella,neisseria
Nadiya
wo bhi 5 hon
Tahira
Nadiya ap kia krti hn?
Tahira
bsc microbiology final year
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
and u
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
and u
Nadiya
1. Neisseria gonohorreae 2. E.coli 3. Salmonella typhi 4. Klebsiella pneumonia 5. Shigella dysenteriae
praveen
MSc zoolgy. 1st semester
Tahira
B.Sc microbiology 1st year
praveen
good
Tahira
konse cllg se aap dono?
Nadiya
mn vu sy hoon and u?
Tahira
davv
Nadiya
Vijaya College,R.V.Road,Basavangudi Bangalore-560004
praveen
oh!! bht khub
Nadiya
hi
Nouman
how are u
Nouman
thank u friend
Nouman
please define classification of bacteria
Nouman
calssification of bacteria are of 3 types: ●.on the basis of shap:1.spirilla 2.bacilli 3.cocci ●in the basis of gram stain : 1.gram -ve 2.gram +ve ●on the basis of oxygen demand: 1.aerobic 2.anaerobic.
Nadiya
detail se please
Nouman
paresention hai iseley
Nouman
jo bacteria hote hai pehle to woh 3 tarha se unka classification kiya jata hai .pehle y ki shape kya hai ....lakin shape hum tab hi define kar payenge jab hum unhe pehchanenge ki bacteria ko kaise jane ki woh kaise hote hai or unka classification kaise hota hai
Nadiya
to hum gram staining karte hai
Nadiya
what is the gram negative
Xaviery Reply
what is enzyme immobilizatio ?
Nadiya Reply
the process of decreasing the rate of enzyme activity.
Edward
shukriya edward knevy .thnks .
Nadiya
sorry thi one is about enzyme inhibition
Edward
enzyme immobization is imprisonment of enzyme in a matrix.
Edward
i am confused
Nadiya
about what
Edward
ok .....i understood ur last one msg .
Nadiya
thanks .
Nadiya
Hallow
Chimo
my pleasure
Edward
can you helpe me please 🤗🤗
Chimo
?
Nadiya
apna number send kar
Asghar
but why
Nadiya
imuhhe patta nhi aapka ki aap kon ho to mai kaise no. send karu aapko or kyu karu ? wajaah to bataaa .
Nadiya
mujhe pata nhi
Nadiya
I want to learn microbiology
rakesh
this app is very benifit to learn microbiology .
Nadiya
Man Topics for Microbiology
rakesh
Please tell me
rakesh
first.u clear ur basic concept in microbiology .
Nadiya
Secondly what should you do
Nancy
u can start ur studies in book by dubey and maheshwari author.
Nadiya
what is primary and secondary screening ?
Nadiya Reply
which scope in the field of dmlt corse ? snd plz explain your experiences with me !
Nadiya
Country?
Number
india
Nadiya
Depends on place
Number
your birth place ?
Nadiya
whats your profession ?
Nadiya
scope of microbiolgy?
Nadiya
Clinical microbiologist
Number
M a doctor
Number
Dmlt isn't that good in india
Number
Bakwas hai
Number
but why ?
Nadiya
whats ur counter plz give m answer ?
Nadiya
Coz i know
Number
Saturation
Number
oh .i get it.
Nadiya
but what choose i ?in this field?
Nadiya
Hmm
Number
Wats ur basic qualification
Number
Good evening all
Ngozi
microbiology
Nadiya
evening
Dennis
good evening 2 u
Nadiya
What microbiology?
Number
bsc final year in micro.......
Nadiya
Do msc n PhD then.... Its better than dmlt n ll
Number
but i dont do this
Nadiya
what Cadillac
Topcy
number@......u r a doctor ?
Nadiya
really
Nadiya
plz explain the defination of scale up of fermentation ?
Nadiya
how do micro biology aids pharmacy
Dennis Reply
please check Google.
Nadiya
bcz very interested topic are able in goggle site
Nadiya
I'm Jeremiah what are the step that involved Gram staining
Jeremiah Reply
place slide with heat fixed smear on staining
Nadiya
smear with crystal violet and let stand for 1 min
Nadiya
and then after 1 min gently wash rinse with tap water...than smear the grams idone and stand for 1 min
Nadiya
again rinse with tap water.then,rhe smear will appear as a purple circle on the slide
Nadiya
then ,decolarize 95%with ethyl alcohol and acetone .till the slide slightly and apply tge alcohol deop by drop for 5 to 10 sec.
Nadiya
and then the alcohol until runs the almost clear .carefully not to over decolorization
Nadiya
immideatly rinse with water.
Nadiya
view the smear using a light microscope under oil immersion
Nadiya
and then complete 😊
Nadiya
.
Nadiya
what is the relation between aspergillus and vinegar.
Asad
can anyone send me the procedure of using autoclave.
Asad
yeh i will....but i can send a site on google !then u can read easily and understand it the procedure of autoclave ? ok .
Nadiya
***google autoclave procedure.
Nadiya
and u write in google site ......procedure of using an autoclave
Nadiya
Hi
Asghar
nadiya you send me phone number
Asghar
can anyone send me the calculation and formula for spread plate technique cfu/ml
Ankita
@Nadiya... I think u have missed the last step of gram staining after decolonization with alcohol we have to counter stain it with either basic fucshin Or Saffranin.
Ankita
yaa ofcourse ...thank u so much ankitaa.
Nadiya
hi asghar
Nadiya
who are u ? and where are u live from ?
Nadiya
Ideally we should use 5 second technique while making one slide of Grams stain
Number
what is scale up of fermentation ?
Nadiya
the most commonly used microorganisms in alcohol fermentation is?
Shaikh Reply
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Online
saccharomyses
Nadiya
Yeast is the most commonly used microorganism for ethanol productionby fermentation. ... Besides S. cerevisiae, other examples of yeastsused for ethanol production are Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida spp., Pichia spp that are able to ferment...
bazi
Ethanol fermentation using the hydrolysate obtained after the saccharification of biomass is the last step in lignocellulosic bioethanol production process. The hydrolysate contains large amount of fermentable sugars that can be directly used by the ethanologenic microorganisms. Yeast is the most co
Najeebul
saccharomyces
Nadiya
yeast
Nadiya
yeast
Veronica
A.o.a aspergillus aur vinegar ka kia relation he.?
Asad
Hmm
Number
what is difference between primary host and secondary host ?
Edward
what is primary screening and secondary screening ....hmm?
Nadiya
primary and secondry host ...best example of female anaPhilis .and disease -maleria !
Nadiya
i am asking about difference not example
Edward
Primary host- the host in which the adult parasite lives, and reproduces sexually. Secondary host- the host in which the immature forms of parasite lives
bazi
primary host -the host in which the adult parasite lives ,and reproduces sexually.and the second host -host in which the immature forms of parasite lives. okyyyy?
Nadiya
synthesis of DNA from a single strand of RNA
Veronica Reply
In this initially , a single stranded RNA is taken into a eppendorff tube as a template for synthesis of Double stranded DNA and dNTPs are added along with reverse transcriptase enzyme . All should be placed in buffered solution. Then above mixture is run on RTPCR machine.
Ravikumar
In which initially double stranded RNA- DNA hybrid is formed and later multiple copies of Double stranded DNA is Formed in number of cycles.
Ravikumar
exactly
Nadiya
what is a virus?
abdulwali Reply
What is DNA transcription
abdulwali
virus is not a bacteria ...it is present in our body fluid .the protein are not composed and work in a proper manner the virus present quikly .
Nadiya
i refer a book name .u find ur question answers .12 or 11th book
Nadiya
DNA trancription is a process the imfirmation are transfer into dna to dna and dna to rna is called dna transcription
Nadiya
in other words,dna transcription ,:in thich a particular segment of dna is copied into rnaand especially mRNA by the enzyme rna polymerase .
Nadiya
why most virus are of RNA genome?
Mika Reply
Good Question❓
MALESELA
its due to their fastidious nature.
Kwame
enlist types of bacteria on tha basis of arrangement of tha flagella
Mihir Reply
monotrichous:vibrio cholerae, amphitrichous,lophotrichous,and last peritrichous.
Nadiya
apna number send kar
Asghar
wooow
MALESELA
o335197242
Asghar
econom emportance of bacteria
Japhet Reply
We can get agar which is used in microbiological media
Kashif
cause disease
Mika
industrial use.
Nadiya
what is microbiology
Anil Reply
what is bacteriology
Anil
vaccine chapter notes give me
Ambika
In bacteria
Kashif
the study of bacteria
Zaajid
microbiology the study of small living thinks that can not seen by the eye
Zaajid
Only micro organism can be studied in microbiology
Kashif
no some of microbiology study of smll living things that cn not be sen by the eye
Zaajid
kashif qamar do you known micro micro means small
Zaajid
Ya but microbiology is a broad term which is not only for small but in this there are some alge and funji that canbbe studied here
Kashif
ya!!! I have a qz what is different btn virulence and virus
Kurwa
so this means, it is the study of microorganisms and their importance.
Kwame
virulence means their level of infection or how infectious a viron is. virus is an intracellular obligates or fastidious organism(parasites) that cannot be filtered with a biological filter and cause harm to it host.
Kwame
so what brought about the study of microbiology
anawuje
Hi guys what is life.... Basic definition require
Kashif
life is the situation of an living organism to survive in a certain condition as host or parasite also life it include commonly living organism that have ability to survive bt life do not include dead organism .
Kurwa
hello explain ways in which gene expression is controlled in a eukaryotic cell...
Cotilda
gene expression how? please come clear!
Kwame
please what does a lady with G6PD result "Partial Defect" signifies?
Kwame
please what is nosocomia infection
Kwabena
nosocomia infection is the infection that are obtained from the hospital or the environment eg TB
Timothy
what is the microbiology
Moha
i think study of all microbes or micro oraganisms
abdul
The branch of that deals with micro organisms
Katta
Koch postulate
Suraju
study of microorganisms
Mika
microbilogy is a study of microbes and microorganisms ...we cannot seen with the naked eyes.
Nadiya
and they can cause many types of diseases .they are benificial and harmful......overall ..microbiology is the study of micro organinsm
Nadiya
study of bacteria is called becteriology.
Nadiya
What is the name of the bacteria cell that stop the replication of DNA
adebisi Reply
onyii
Chisom
Hi this s saroja from hyd
Katipogu
ESBL ARTICLE
Katipogu
What s the reference book for Esbl
Katipogu
hello. who likes microbs? :)
Bahadir
is there any injectable vit. B cmplex?! hi there to all group chatter...
Josearnel
what is the reference book of this course?
Syarifa Reply
Do u want an undergraduate book or a postgraduate book
Number
please what does a woman with G6PD result' Partial Defect means?
Kwame
Evans this ll mean that the person has theG6PD is small in the blood and can still not take drugs with sulphur content
rita
Evans this ll mean that the G6PD defeat is small in the blood and can still not take drugs with sulphur content
rita
wow
Blessing
have Miss a lot can I get a teacher to teach me
Blessing
undergraduate book, please! @number seven
Syarifa
antigen and antibody reaction chapter notes
Ambika
what will happen if the person should take a drug with sulphur content
ignatius
@syarifa u can consult jawetz, levinsons, ananth narayan or a new book recommended by konemans... Medical microbiology by Apurbo shankar shastry
Number
A.h Patel
Nadiya
pelzar
Nadiya

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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