<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
a) A micrograph of a cross section of a flagellum showing a ring of 9 sets of structures that are made of smaller rings. In the center are two more complete smaller rings. B)  A micrograph showing a flagellum. This shows a star shaped structure in the cell attached to the long lines that make up the filament of the flagellum. A diagram shows the triplet centriole in the cell as part of the basal body that attaches the filament to the cell. The diagram also shows a cross section of the filament. The outer ring is made of 9 sets of the following: a ring labeled subfiber A, a ring labeled subfiber B, a projection labeled radial spoke with a small end labeled spoke head, a projection towards the center labeled inner dynein, and a projection towards the outside labeled outer dynein. Each of these 9 sets are connected to the ones next to it via a line called nexin. These 9 sets form a ring; in the center of this ring are 2 small circles labeled central singlet microtubule. These two are attached to each other by a line labeled central bridge. C) A cell with flagella on either end. D) A cell with many small cilia along the outside and an indentation labeled mouth.
(a) Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are composed of a 9+2 array of microtubules, as seen in this transmission electron micrograph cross-section. (b) The sliding of these microtubules relative to each other causes a flagellum to bend. (c) An illustration of Trichomonas vaginalis , a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis. (d) Many protozoans, like this Paramecium , have numerous cilia that aid in locomotion as well as in feeding. Note the mouth opening shown here. (credit d: modification of work by University of Vermont/National Institutes of Health)
  • Explain how the cellular envelope of eukaryotic cells compares to that of prokaryotic cells.
  • Explain the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic flagella.

Resolution

Since amoxicillin has not resolved Barbara’s case of pneumonia, the PA prescribes another antibiotic, azithromycin, which targets bacterial ribosomes rather than peptidoglycan. After taking the azithromycin as directed, Barbara’s symptoms resolve and she finally begins to feel like herself again. Presuming no drug resistance to amoxicillin was involved, and given the effectiveness of azithromycin, the causative agent of Barbara’s pneumonia is most likely Mycoplasma pneumoniae . Even though this bacterium is a prokaryotic cell, it is not inhibited by amoxicillin because it does not have a cell wall and, therefore, does not make peptidoglycan.

Go back to the previous Clinical Focus box.

Key concepts and summary

  • Eukaryotic cells are defined by the presence of a nucleus containing the DNA genome and bound by a nuclear membrane (or nuclear envelope ) composed of two lipid bilayers that regulate transport of materials into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pores.
  • Eukaryotic cell morphologies vary greatly and may be maintained by various structures, including the cytoskeleton, the cell membrane, and/or the cell wall
  • The nucleolus , located in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, is the site of ribosomal synthesis and the first stages of ribosome assembly.
  • Eukaryotic cells contain 80S ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum ( membrane bound-ribosomes ) and cytoplasm ( free ribosomes ). They contain 70s ribosomes in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  • Eukaryotic cells have evolved an endomembrane system, containing membrane-bound organelles involved in transport. These include vesicles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus.
  • The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of toxic compounds. The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains membrane-bound 80S ribosomes that synthesize proteins destined for the cell membrane
  • The Golgi apparatus processes proteins and lipids, typically through the addition of sugar molecules, producing glycoproteins or glycolipids, components of the plasma membrane that are used in cell-to-cell communication.
  • Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that break down small particles ingested by endocytosis , large particles or cells ingested by phagocytosis , and damaged intracellular components.
  • The cytoskeleton , composed of microfilaments , intermediate filaments , and microtubules , provides structural support in eukaryotic cells and serves as a network for transport of intracellular materials.
  • Centrosomes are microtubule-organizing centers important in the formation of the mitotic spindle in mitosis.
  • Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration. They have two membranes: an outer membrane and an inner membrane with cristae. The mitochondrial matrix, within the inner membrane, contains the mitochondrial DNA, 70S ribosomes, and metabolic enzymes.
  • The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is structurally similar to that found in prokaryotic cells, and membrane components move according to the fluid mosaic model. However, eukaryotic membranes contain sterols, which alter membrane fluidity, as well as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which help the cell recognize other cells and infectious particles.
  • In addition to active transport and passive transport, eukaryotic cell membranes can take material into the cell via endocytosis , or expel matter from the cell via exocytosis.
  • Cells of fungi, algae, plants, and some protists have a cell wall, whereas cells of animals and some protozoans have a sticky extracellular matrix that provides structural support and mediates cellular signaling.
  • Eukaryotic flagella are structurally distinct from prokaryotic flagella but serve a similar purpose (locomotion). Cilia are structurally similar to eukaryotic flagella, but shorter; they may be used for locomotion, feeding, or movement of extracellular particles.

True/false

Mitochondria in eukaryotic cells contain ribosomes that are structurally similar to those found in prokaryotic cells.

True

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Fill in the blank

Peroxisomes typically produce _____________, a harsh chemical that helps break down molecules.

hydrogen peroxide

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Microfilaments are composed of _____________ monomers.

actin

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Short answer

What existing evidence supports the theory that mitochondria are of prokaryotic origin?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Why do eukaryotic cells require an endomembrane system?

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Name at least two ways that prokaryotic flagella are different from eukaryotic flagella.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

Can you give an essay of theta model of DNA replication?
ARYA Reply
Actually Bacterial replication is bidirectional process so when replication start in bacterial DNA two dna forks get formed and both replication again meet on same point in termination position ... so therefore in bacterial dna a greek letter (θ) structure formed which is called theta modal.
Bharat
what are thermophile's bacteria
evon Reply
bacteria which can survive in high temperature.
Jayeeta
Thanks
Prudence
why do we study microbiology?
Joyce Reply
For the classification, identification of pathogenic microbes ...
Bharat
thanks
Joyce
what is pathogenicity
jesca
diseases causing activity ...
Bharat
of microbes..
Bharat
sorry ability not activity..
Bharat
I think it's the degree of a pathogen to cause infection
Foster
what is prokaryotes
PRALHAD Reply
are micro-organisms that have no nucleus e.g bacteria
Foster
and they do not possess membrane bound organelles e.g mitochondria
Bharat
yes
Foster
they are single cellular organisms,
Rajasekhar
all the organelles are embedded in cytoplasm of the cell
Rajasekhar
They don't possess true nucleus
PREMI
they're unicellular organisms
Kamaluddeen
they are classified as bacteria and. archaea. bacteria have a cell membrane conposed of peptidoglycan and archaea is composed of psuedomu
Tara
pseudomurein
Tara
organelles are non membraneous as the nucleus
Tara
What is the biosynthesis of a bacteria cell
Adesina Reply
biosynthesis is multiple step enzymes catalyze process which occur in bacterial cell
Jayeeta
biological way of manufacturing food and utilizes it for growth, multiplication and development
Kamaluddeen
prokaryot
PRALHAD
what is microbiology
Kiirya Reply
which organism can not be seen necked eyes is knowm as microbiology
meet
microorganisms
Jayeeta
micro can be define as d smallest living organisms dat can not be see wit naked eyes only with the aid of a microscope 🔬
muhammed
bio means life logy means study
muhammed
biology can b define as the systematic study of living things
muhammed
microbiology can be define as the study of tiny organisms, that's according to my understanding
muhammed
Microbiology is the study of living organisms which cannot be seen by the naked eye but only with the aid of a microscope. These microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, fungi, micro-algae, protozoa and virus.
Tatz
microbes that can't seen in naked eyes. upto 100micrometer we can see in naked eyes but 1 microns or nanometers are invisible in naked eye.
Jayeeta
what is a cell
Oteri Reply
cell can be define as smallest indivisible organism in the body
muhammed
cell is the smallest unit which makes up the whole body
Yue
cell is smallest unit and there are two types prokaryotic cell and eukaryote cell. bacteria a prokaryotic cell which works independently.
Jayeeta
nice forum
muhammed
Which parasite competes with the host for vitamin B12 to cause pernicious anaemia
Abubakar
Diphyllobothrium latum for vit B12
Jayeeta
it is also fish tapeworm
Jayeeta
Diphyllobothrium sp feed vitB 12
Jayeeta
recent trends in microbiology of biofertilizer
Ykomalipriya Reply
using nano technology
Jayeeta
what is transposors
EMMANUEL Reply
Junk DNA, jumping gene.
Pradeep
transposon elements are jumping gene as DNA sequence move from one location to anothet
Jayeeta
Yes
Pradeep
what is microbiology
Usama Reply
Microbiology is the study of organisms, most of which are too small to be seen with the naked eye, including bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi, as well as acellular agents, such as viruses and prions.
digvijaya
what is gram +ve and gram - ve bacteria?
Sharma
gm- contain lipid layer so it take counter stain during gram staining and pink or red in color but gm + does have thick LPS layer.
Jayeeta
what year microbiology started
Kartik
Robert Koch was the first to detect microorganisms
Jayeeta
what appears microorganisms
Kartik
clear the questions please
Jayeeta
was it robert koch or robert hooke?
digvijaya
microbiology word came from microns. study microbes that not recognize in naked eyes.
Jayeeta
what are the branch of microbiology
Oyemade Reply
We can basically classify into pure and applied microbiology
Ozzie
what is arabinose operon and it's stucture
Pooja Reply
The L-arabinose operon, also called the ara or araBAD operon, is an operon required for the breakdown of the five-carbon sugar, L-arabinose, in Escherichia coli
Tharra
kya hum operon ko divide kar skate hain
Kartik
reactions if viruses to physical and chemical agents?
VICTOR Reply
All viruses contain the following two components: 1) a nucleic acid genome and 2) a protein capsid that covers the genome. Together this is called the nucleocapsid. In addition, many animal viruses contain a 3) lipid envelope. The entire intact virus is called the virion.
Asali
assume you have performed a gram stain on a sample of pus from a patients urethra. you see red, nucleated cells and purple rods. what can you conclude
Petty Reply
bacteria
ABUBAKAR
gram negative bacteria hence gonococcal infection
Kiirya
Study of micro organisation which we cannot see with naked eye...
shyam Reply
Despite their bad reputation, microbes are mostly beneficial or have a neutral effect on our lives. Microbiology is the scientific study of these microorganisms. Microorganisms are those organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye and include things like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Asali
yes
Dhirender
not 'things'...'organisms' like bacterias, viruses and fungi
Sinmi
simi, it's not bacterias but bacteria which is the plural form of the word while bacterium is the singular of it
Richard
bacterium is obvio in a singular form but plural of bacterium is bacterias
Sinmi
Richard is right it's bacterium which is the singular form and plural is bacteria. *Bacterias* doesn't exist.
Aakriti
that is microbiology which is deals with microbes only their structure
Kiirya

Get the best Microbiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Microbiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask