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Learning objectives

  • Compare the anatomy, function, and normal microbiota associated with the male and female urogenital systems
  • Explain how microorganisms, in general, overcome the defenses of the urogenital system to cause infection
  • Name, describe, and differentiate between general signs and symptoms associated with infections of the urogenital tract

Part 1

Nadia is a newly married 26-year-old graduate student in economics. Recently she has been experiencing an unusual vaginal discharge, as well as some itching and discomfort. Since she is due for her annual physical exam, she makes an appointment with her doctor hoping that her symptoms can be quickly treated. However, she worries that she may have some sort of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although she is now in a monogamous relationship, she is not fully certain of her spouse’s sexual history and she is reluctant to ask him about it.

At her checkup, Nadia describes her symptoms to her primary care physician and, somewhat awkwardly, explains why she thinks she might have an STI. Nadia’s doctor reassures her that she regularly sees patients with similar concerns and encourages her to be fully transparent about her symptoms because some STIs can have serious complications if left untreated. After some further questioning, the doctor takes samples of Nadia’s blood, urine, and vaginal discharge to be sent to the lab for testing.

  • What are some possible causes of Nadia’s symptoms?
  • Why does the doctor take so many different samples?

Jump to the next Clinical Focus box.

The urinary system filters blood, excretes wastes, and maintains an appropriate electrolyte and water balance. The reproductive system is responsible for the production of gametes and participates in conception and, in females, development of offspring. Due to their proximity and overlap, these systems are often studied together and referred to as the urogenital system (or genitourinary system).

Anatomy of the urinary tract

The basic structures of the urinary tract are common in males and females. However, there are unique locations for these structures in females and males, and there is a significant amount of overlap between the urinary and genital structures in males. [link] illustrates the urinary anatomy common to females and males.

The kidneys carry out the urinary system’s primary functions of filtering the blood and maintaining water and electrolyte balance. The kidneys are composed of millions of filtration units called nephrons. Each nephron is in intimate contact with blood through a specialized capillary bed called the glomerulus (plural glomeruli ). Fluids, electrolytes, and molecules from the blood pass from the glomerulus into the nephron, creating the filtrate that becomes urine ( [link] ). Urine that collects in each kidney empties through a ureter and drains to the urinary bladder , which stores urine. Urine is released from the bladder to the urethra , which transports it to be excreted from the body through the urinary meatus , the opening of the urethra.

A diagram of the urinary system. The adrenal glands (1) sit on top of the kidneys (2) which are in the lower back. The ureter (3) connects the kidney to the urinary bladder (7) which sits at the base of the pelvis (5). The urethra (8) is a tube from the bladder out of the body. The renal vein (4) and renal artery (5) connect the kidneys to the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava.
These structures of the human urinary system are present in both males and females.

Questions & Answers

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Chetan Reply
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It's technique to differentiate bacterial species.The method is discovered by Hans Christian Gram. The bacteria is differentiated as gram positive and gram negative on the basis of peptidoglycan layer which is present in cell wall. The gram positive have peptidoglycan layer.
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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
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to be in touch with subject will help to cope up with the learning life long and also interest matters for subject
Constant review. And don't worry if you do forget something you always have the option to study it again. Each time you study a certain topic the more it make sense and the more it becomes something natural rather than brute memorization.
the cause are many 1.lack of interest . 2. poor attitude to the subject. how can he cope up 1. falling in love with the subject . 2. making it part of you at all times and having determination
understanding the concept and relating whatever course of study with something in his/her day to day activities (i.e in which you are more conversant with in your life).
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Timaka Reply
chicken pox
Patients with disseminated herpes zostermay present with severe abdominal pain that results from visceral involvement of varicella-zoster-virus infection. In immunocompetent individuals herpes zoster usually is a localised illness, affecting the skin of one or two adjacent dermatomes.
Actually, it is severe abdominal pain thanks
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Estar Reply
what causes the fungi infection of the vagina?
poor hygiene of the area and unprotected sex with infected partner
poor hygiene,some times having sex with infected person or when normal flora enters in the vagina
unprotected sex and poor hygiene are the major but keep in mind that there are some other minor causes also
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Sumaiyah Reply
So many factors might be the cause viz. Defects of blood capillaries and certain organs like the liver, the kidneys e.t.c
with the above any infection of the body easily enters the bloodstream.
there may be fevers which cause septicemia
even taking drug, and eating junk foods .
drinking contaminated water and taking drugs which contains chemical and afterwards they gets absorbed in yo the blood stream
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anaparthi Reply
Structure of bacteria
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Outline the classification of viruses according to morphology, nucleic acid, type of diseases, antigenic reaction
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Mukomya Reply
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Father of microbiology is Anton von Leuuwenhoek
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father of surgery is Sushruta
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Jessa Reply
nowhere because our body alone also contain billions of microbes.
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Bangladeshi people's body contain thrice the amount of microbes than regular people.
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Cocci are bacterias
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Vibrio cholarea
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Fimbriae z an organ of bacteria
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, the father of micro biology

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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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