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  • What are two possible reasons for choosing a bacteriostatic treatment over a bactericidal one?
  • Name at least two factors that can compromise the effectiveness of a disinfecting agent.

Key concepts and summary

  • Inanimate items that may harbor microbes and aid in their transmission are called fomites . The level of cleanliness required for a fomite depends both on the item’s use and the infectious agent with which the item may be contaminated.
  • The CDC and the NIH have established four biological safety levels (BSLs) for laboratories performing research on infectious agents. Each level is designed to protect laboratory personnel and the community. These BSLs are determined by the agent’s infectivity, ease of transmission, and potential disease severity, as well as the type of work being performed with the agent.
  • Disinfection removes potential pathogens from a fomite, whereas antisepsis uses antimicrobial chemicals safe enough for tissues; in both cases, microbial load is reduced, but microbes may remain unless the chemical used is strong enough to be a sterilant .
  • The amount of cleanliness ( sterilization versus high-level disinfection versus general cleanliness) required for items used clinically depends on whether the item will come into contact with sterile tissues ( critical item) , mucous membranes ( semicritical item ), or intact skin ( noncritical item ).
  • Medical procedures with a risk for contamination should be carried out in a sterile field maintained by proper aseptic technique to prevent sepsis .
  • Sterilization is necessary for some medical applications as well as in the food industry, where endospores of Clostridium botulinum are killed through commercial sterilization protocols.
  • Physical or chemical methods to control microbial growth that result in death of the microbe are indicated by the suffixes -cide or -cidal (e.g., as with bactericides , viricides , and fungicides ), whereas those that inhibit microbial growth are indicated by the suffixes -stat or -static (e.g., bacteriostatic , fungistatic ).
  • Microbial death curves display the logarithmic decline of living microbes exposed to a method of microbial control. The time it takes for a protocol to yield a 1-log (90%) reduction in the microbial population is the decimal reduction time , or D-value .
  • When choosing a microbial control protocol, factors to consider include the length of exposure time, the type of microbe targeted, its susceptibility to the protocol, the intensity of the treatment, the presence of organics that may interfere with the protocol, and the environmental conditions that may alter the effectiveness of the protocol.

Fill in the blank

A medical item that comes into contact with intact skin and does not penetrate sterile tissues or come into contact with mucous membranes is called a(n) ________ item.

noncritical

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The goal of ________ ________ protocols is to rid canned produce of Clostridium botulinum endospores.

commercial sterilization

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True/false

Sanitization leaves an object free of microbes.

False

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Short answer

What are some characteristics of microbes and infectious agents that would require handling in a BSL-3 laboratory?

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What is the purpose of degerming? Does it completely eliminate microbes?

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What are some factors that alter the effectiveness of a disinfectant?

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Questions & Answers

define polar bond in simple way
Rashmi Reply
Hi everyone, is these site only about microbiology? I want a site which I can download articles on hematological and biochemical profile
Peter Reply
I think it is only about micro biology.
Kimberly
so whats happening
Michael
I am about to enter school and am going for MCB
Olugbenga Reply
What is DNA damage and repair
Sree Reply
removal of nucleotide bases from DNA is damage n addition or insertion of bases in DNA is repair.
Rashmi
replication is a term related to generation of new DNA from a parental DNA.
Rashmi
role of microorganism as pathogens
Parteek Reply
to live inside the host body, reproduction n destroy the immune system of host body.
Rashmi
what is replication
rajesh
please give me ans
rajesh
replication is a term related to generation of new DNA from parental DNA.
Rashmi
difference between endotoxin and exotoxin
Binkheir Reply
toxins released inside the cell or a body is endotoxin n toxins released outside the cell or a body is exotoxin.
Rashmi
please I want the names of bacteria and the diseases they cause.
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there are many we classify it according to their shapes gram negative or gram positive
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what are the opportunistic infection in aids stage
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certain cancer or pneumonia 🤔
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penicillium crysogenum
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Salam am studying physiotherapy in bayaro university kano
Tasiu
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K.D tripathi
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Fadumo Reply
it is the study of microorganisms
Sneha
microorganis means
Ghuge
the organism can not be seen by eyes they can be seen with the help of microscope
rajesh
microbiology is the study of microorganism and microorganism are such as bacteria ,parasite, viruses and fungi and etc.. those are cant be seen with asked eyes and can be seen with help of microscope . I hope this helps you
Tharra
what is virology
Bismarck Reply
the study of viruses
Adan
what is myrology
Bismarck
myrology or mycology?
Adan
mycology
Bismarck
the study of fungi.
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Mycology study fungi
Hakeeb
study of viruses
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what are the major topics that you cover under micro biology
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virology,mycology,bacteriology
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identification n application of microorganisms
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Source:  OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax CNX. Nov 01, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.4
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