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If the United States decided to reduce immigration substantially, the economic losses would likely be small relative to the overall economy. If the United States decided to increase immigration substantially, the U.S. economy certainly is large enough to afford some additional assistance to low-wage workers or to local governments that might be adversely affected by immigration. Whether immigration levels are increased, decreased, or left the same, the quality of the debate over immigration policy would be improved by an explicit recognition of who receives economic benefits from immigration and who bears its costs.

Collective bargaining in wisconsin

Should we end collective bargaining rights for government employees? In an effort to reduce the budget deficit, a contentious Wisconsin law prohibited most public employees from collectively bargaining on anything except wages. Legislators in Wisconsin argued that public safety is so important that public safety workers should be exempted from this. They could not risk firefighters and police going on strike. All firms and employees know that pensions and benefits are expensive; and there was a $3.6 billion budget deficit in Wisconsin that Governor Walker and legislators wanted to decrease. A lingering question is: should the unions have been more willing to shoulder a greater burden of the cost of those benefits? That question suggests that it is the cost, not necessarily the role of the union itself, which is the problem. After all, unions were founded to reduce the disadvantage that single employees face when bargaining with employers. Because so many government employees are union members, collective bargaining is even more important for them.

Ultimately, the benefit of unions is in the impact they have on economic productivity and output. The more productive the union workers become as a result of collective bargaining, the better off the economy will be.

The long-term repercussions of the Wisconsin law have yet to be realized. As a result of this bill, wage increases higher than the rate of inflation for Wisconsin public sector employees must be voted upon. Imagine if you are working for the Wisconsin government, and are able to find a higher-paying job in the private sector. What will you do? If you decide to leave because your options are better elsewhere, then the government must replace you. How will the government find workers to replace you? For some sectors of the government, reduced numbers of workers may mean greater efficiency. For other sectors, though, reduced numbers of government workers may mean reduced services.

Key concepts and summary

The recent level of U.S. immigration is at a historically high level if measured in absolute numbers, but not if measured as a share of population. The overall gains to the U.S. economy from immigration are real but relatively small. However, immigration also causes effects like slightly lower wages for low-skill workers and budget problems for certain state and local governments.

References

Clune, Michael S. “The Fiscal Impacts of Immigrants: A California Case Study.” In The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration , edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998, 120–182. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5985&page=120.

Smith, James P. “Immigration Reform.” Rand Corporation: Rand Review . http://www.rand.org/pubs/periodicals/rand-review/issues/2012/fall/leadership/immigration-reform.html.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Office of Immigration Statistics. “2011 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics.” September 2012. http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2011/ois_yb_2011.pdf.

Questions & Answers

what is deadweightloss
francis Reply
hi
Bless
deadweight loss is the allocative inefficiency.... when the equilibrium for good or services is not achived.
Azhar
hi
Azhar
hi
azaloo
hii too
Jackson
Hello
Micah
how are you all?
Azhar
I am here been sick but here
Amanda
may you get well soon Amanda
Azhar
What are the implications of classical Economics?
Micah
What are the implications of classical Economics school of thought?
Micah
Dead weight loss is an inefficient allocation of resources, especially through taxation or restrictions.
Ezeigwe
Classical Economics had an influenced by ancient economic principle and theory.
Ezeigwe
hello please what is localization of industry
Bless Reply
price is tantalisingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit Reply
Price is tantalizingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit
what is scarcity
Sharkdanny Reply
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.
Abdirahin
what is meant by an abnormal demand curve?
Samuel Reply
what is microeconomics
Berun Reply
micronomics can be define as that part of Economics that deals with small scale business. e.g. House hold stuff
Amodu
Micro economics is the study of individuals, households and firms' behavior un decision making and allocation of resources
Christian
what is underemployment
Xornam Reply
It is the situation where the available resources are not used to it optimum
Bless
state the law of diminishing returns
Bless
Bless, the law of diminishing returns state that one point, adding a single worker will result in a decrease of production.
David
it is a situation where by people are employ but work under their potential
Akua
David please go into details kk
Bless
Akua pls when you say people alone? what about facilities?
Bless
Definition of underemployment. 1 : the condition in which people in a labor force are employed at less than full-time or regular jobs or at jobs inadequate with respect to their training or economic needs
Boahen
OK that is good
Set
I am new here
Taimoor
what does law of demand says?
Samuel
with a diagram explain fairy elastic demand
Samuel
comprehensive answer for public finance is the money that a government has available to spend from taxes and borrowing.
wilflay Reply
what then comprises of public opinion
Raphael
what is macro economics
SAGAR Reply
Definition of demand and supply
oyebanji Reply
whatd is name of economic scholars defined classic view
Ahmed Reply
Whole Classical view is based on J.B.Say's Law of Marker demand
abhinav
the science of economic has both positive and normative aspect,discuss.
Mkiwa Reply
simplified definition of a production possibility curve
Rose Reply
This is call the PFF curve .
Sumowoui
A country can produce lots of guns, or lots of butter. But, they cannot produce lots of both. The solution to this is called comparative advantage. Comparative advantage is that different countrys specialize in different areas, and then trade.
David
this is call the. pff curve
Murali
It is defind as a curve which shows various combinations of two goods produced with given resources
Shahid
it means a country with a given level of technology and available resources can produce two goods only if the technology or resources are efficiently utilize. In d process of utilization you will produce one goods more than the other that is why the downward slope of a PPC curve indicates opp cost
Odion
Shows all the possible combination of two goods or services
Christian
it is d intersection of two different variables
Odion Reply
what is equilibrium ?
James Reply
the quantity of demanded for a good is equal to its quantity supplied. Qdd=Qss
Podol
in economics, an equilibrium is situation in which : 1. qd=qd 2.no tendency or quantity to change 3. the market just clears without surplus/shortage
Podol
it is the intersection between two variables. Because you did not specify the equilibrium you talking about is it consumer or market forces
Odion
A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced
Preeti
Equilibrium refers to the economic situation where supply and demand for a certain goods and services in market is equal, which represents a stable market price to purchase and sell.
Preeti
curve d and s intersection
Podol
yes jahan par demand and supply intersect karte hai wahi par equilibrium hota hai
Preeti
Equilibrium is when two variables intersect.
Akolo
equilibrium is a point where demand and supply meet with out shortages or surplus.
Sumowoui
Hmm scholars
Odion
am new here I want to know more about economics
Mansur
Micro and macro
Mansur
What do you think?
Yussif
can someone explain demand and supply
Mansur
demand is a quantity of a commodity which could be offer for sales at a particular price. !!!!...And supply is also a quantity of a commodity which could be brought by a consumer at a given price and time.
Rosemary
m also new want to know more about economics
Gift
kk
Rosemary
txup rose
Gift
hi
Rosemary
u gud
Gift
yes nd u? by d way who are u!!
Rosemary
m gift wer u from?
Gift
Ibadan
Rosemary
nd u
Rosemary
wer s the place o wic country?
Gift
Nigeria
Rosemary
lusaka
Gift
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Rosemary
wats yo username?
Gift
RaviKumar
Ravi

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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