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Finally, consider the intermediate zone    of the SRAS curve in [link] . If the AD curve crosses this portion of the SRAS curve at an equilibrium point like Ei, then we might expect unemployment and inflation to move in opposing directions. For instance, a shift of AD to the right will move output closer to potential GDP and thus reduce unemployment, but will also lead to a higher price level and upward pressure on inflation. Conversely, a shift of AD to the left will move output further from potential GDP and raise unemployment, but will also lead to a lower price level and downward pressure on inflation.

This approach of dividing the SRAS curve into different zones works as a diagnostic test that can be applied to an economy, like a doctor checking a patient for symptoms. First, figure out what zone the economy is in and then the economic issues, tradeoffs, and policy choices will be clarified. Some economists believe that the economy is strongly predisposed to be in one zone or another. Thus, hard-line Keynesian economists believe that the economies are in the Keynesian zone most of the time, and so they view the neoclassical zone as a theoretical abstraction. Conversely, hard-line neoclassical economists argue that economies are in the neoclassical zone most of the time and that the Keynesian zone is a distraction. The Keynesian Perspective and The Neoclassical Perspective should help to clarify the underpinnings and consequences of these contrasting views of the macroeconomy.

From housing bubble to housing bust

Economic fluctuations, whether those experienced during the Great Depression of the 1930s, the stagflation of the 1970s, or the Great Recession of 2008–2009, can be explained using the AD/AS diagram. Short-run fluctuations in output occur due to shifts of the SRAS curve, the AD curve, or both. In the case of the housing bubble, rising home values caused the AD curve to shift to the right as more people felt that rising home values increased their overall wealth. Many homeowners took on mortgages that exceeded their ability to pay because, as home values continued to go up, the increased value would pay off any debt outstanding. Increased wealth due to rising home values lead to increased home equity loans and increased spending. All these activities pushed AD to the right, contributing to low unemployment rates and economic growth in the United States. When the housing bubble burst, overall wealth dropped dramatically, wiping out the recent gains. This drop in the value of homes was a demand shock to the U.S. economy because of its impact directly on the wealth of the household sector, and its contagion into the financial that essentially locked up new credit. The AD curve shifted to the left as evidenced by the rising unemployment of the Great Recession.

Understanding the source of these macroeconomic fluctuations provided monetary and fiscal policy makers with insight about what policy actions to take to mitigate the impact of the housing crisis. From a monetary policy perspective, the Federal Reserve lowered short-term interest rates to between 0% and 0.25 %, to loosen up credit throughout the financial system. Discretionary fiscal policy measures included the passage of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 that allowed for the purchase of troubled assets, such as mortgages, from financial institutions and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 that increased government spending on infrastructure, provided for tax cuts, and increased transfer payments. In combination, both monetary and fiscal policy measures were designed to help stimulate aggregate demand in the U.S. economy, pushing the AD curve to the right.

While most economists agree on the usefulness of the AD/AS diagram in analyzing the sources of these fluctuations, there is still some disagreement about the effectiveness of policy decisions that are useful in stabilizing these fluctuations. We discuss the possible policy actions and the differences among economists about their effectiveness in more detail in The Keynesian Perspective , Monetary Policy and Bank Regulation , and Government Budgets and Fiscal Policy .

Key concepts and summary

The SRAS curve can be divided into three zones. Keynes’ law says demand creates its own supply, so that changes in aggregate demand cause changes in real GDP and employment. Keynes’ law can be shown on the horizontal Keynesian zone of the aggregate supply curve. The Keynesian zone occurs at the left of the SRAS curve where it is fairly flat, so movements in AD will affect output, but have little effect on the price level. Say’s law says supply creates its own demand. Changes in aggregate demand have no effect on real GDP and employment, only on the price level. Say’s law can be shown on the vertical neoclassical zone of the aggregate supply curve. The neoclassical zone occurs at the right of the SRAS curve where it is fairly vertical, and so movements in AD will affect the price level, but have little impact on output. The intermediate zone in the middle of the SRAS curve is upward-sloping, so a rise in AD will cause higher output and price level, while a fall in AD will lead to a lower output and price level.

Questions & Answers

this means that the demand curve have negative relationship with the price ..which means that when high price low demand of the product and vice versa so higher price will shirnk the demand of product
Ahsan Reply
Higher price level ∴Real value of household wealth increase ∴Net export decrease ∴More money needed, interest rate increase, investment decrease
sirius
a person has 60birr to buy two commodities,x and y the price of x is four birr unit the price of y is two birr unit his utility functio given by u=xy+2x determine the budget equation
Mohammed Reply
What are the various reasons for the Federal Reserve to increase the fed rates?
AMEEN Reply
What is unemployment
Mijash Reply
Unemployment is a term used to describe people who do not hold a paying job
JASON
what are the causes of unemployment
evans
unemployment refer to the situation in which people searching job but they have no. it also refers in which marginal productivity in zero.
Ramu
Causes of unemployment are: 1: Over Population 2: Break down of the family system 3: Rural/Urban Migration
Umar
unemployment simply means, in the situation where by people are looking for a job and their could achieve it.
Faruk
suppose you're the economist of ethiopia; when the country is face high rate of inflation what you recommend as one economist?
Roba Reply
if consumer spend all their incomes on consumption what does it mean?
Roba
if the government spends more of its revenue on development infrastructure from the budget it have and lower tax collection the budget deficit will run why?
Roba
because tax is less than revenue
Bhat
what is demand
Sunday Reply
Demand is the quantity of goods and services that consumers are willing and able to purchase at various prices over a given period of time
adu
demand is the ability back the willingness to purchase something with a specific price within a period of time
Ousman
the total value of goods and services produced by a coutry in it's own territorial area( mainly in a year) is called GDP
fareeha Reply
GDP- the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
fareeha
What is the formula for propensity to save
Zubair
there is no formula for propensity to save but it has a two types one is average propensity to save and marginal propensity to save where Apc is equal to saving divide by income and mpc is equal to change in saving due change in income
Bhat
yes ooo
Sunday
yes
Ahmed
okay
kawu
what is time in economics?
Sunday
what is gross domestic product
Moonga Reply
what is macroeconomics
Dickison Reply
this is the branch of economics that deals with wide range
Ousman
what is macroeconomics
Majid Reply
what is macroeconomic analysis
Deogratius Reply
Macroeconomics is a branch of the economics that studies how the aggregate economy behaves. In macroeconomics, a variety of economy-wide phenomena is thoroughly examined such as inflation, price levels, rate of growth, national income, gross domestic product (GDP) and changes in unemployment Read m
wasay
Macroeconomics is a branch of the economics that studies how the aggregate economy behaves. In macroeconomics, a variety of economy-wide phenomena is thoroughly examined such as inflation, price levels, rate of growth, national income, gross domestic product (GDP) and changes in unemployment
wasay
what is wage in economics?
Sunday
what is economic
Wajeed Reply
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. 
ninad
Economics is the brench of science that deals with the study of human behavior as it related to end or scare means which have alternative used.
Jimmy
Economics is a science that studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses
Don
Economics as a social science does not have a definite definition, because it has been defined by many economist the most appropriate one was the one defined by Lord Lionel Robbin in 1932. He defined economics as a social science which study human behavior as a relationship between end and scare m..
Ernest
what is inflation
Junaid Reply
Inflation is simply a situation in an economy where there is a persistent rise or increase in the prices of goods and services in a particular year(say current year)
JERRY
It can still be defined as a situation in an economy where there's a persistent fall in the value of money
JERRY
it is the persistent rise in the general price of goods and services in an economy leading to the fall in the values of money
Muafue
It could mean the central bank has a deficit in reserve unable to cope with low export and exit of foreign investments.
Wong
inflation is the general increase in a commodity with in a country.
Jimmy
Mr Fallah please take the definition again that one is not clear
Muafue
the persistence in general price of commodities
ezechy
The persistence rise in the general price level
Muafue
The persistence rise in general price of commodities
Delhill
Inflation is the persistent increase in price of goods and services over a given period of time.
Ernest
what is willingness
Bilal Reply
Is a person Able,Capable and Anxious to something
Muafue
Is when a person is able,capable and Anxious to do something
Muafue
thanks sir g.
Bilal
u are welcome
Muafue
where you from
Bilal
Cameroon
Muafue
And you
Muafue
Pakistan
Bilal
How far are you in Education
Muafue
who about my question What is MPC
sabawoon
is marginal propensity to consume
Muafue
a little more
sabawoon
sorry muafue sir you are little bit wrong about willingness *willingness reffers how much wants . it could be wants for payment or wants for something to do.
Masadaq
MPC reffers *How much want to consume*.
Masadaq
MPC is Marginal Propensity to Consume. MPC is proportion of additional spent on consumption.
Bon
MPC is Marginal Propensity to Consume. MPC is the proportion of additional income spent on consumption.
Bon
What is difference between GNP and GDP?
Zahid
GNP is gross national product. In calculating GNP we include net national income from abroad while GDP is gross domestic product and in calculating it we use on expenditure, income and output from within the country. My name is JERRY NGONDA from Cameron
JERRY
GNP.the total value of good $service currently produce w a given period of time by domestic owner GNP=NFI+GDP:GDP is a market value of final good $service currently produce in a given period of time w in a country boundery or territors.its take produce currently $etc
tade
yes.no suggestions
tade
good Tade Feyera
Masadaq
Tade Feyera can you send me your whatsap contact number.
Masadaq
when spending by the federal government exceeds net taxes?
stefany Reply
explain the difference between macroeconomics and microeconomics
Rahmo
Macroeconomics is the study of economics at the aggregate level while Micro is at the individual level.
Umar
Both indifference curve and isoquant do not intersect TRUE OR FALSE and justify your statement
John
what is long run and short run period
Kennedy

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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