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Ketone oxidation

This figure shows the reactions in which ketone is oxidized to acetyl-CoA.
When glucose is limited, ketone bodies can be oxidized to produce acetyl CoA to be used in the Krebs cycle to generate energy.


When glucose levels are plentiful, the excess acetyl CoA generated by glycolysis can be converted into fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, steroids, and bile salts. This process, called lipogenesis    , creates lipids (fat) from the acetyl CoA and takes place in the cytoplasm of adipocytes (fat cells) and hepatocytes (liver cells). When you eat more glucose or carbohydrates than your body needs, your system uses acetyl CoA to turn the excess into fat. Although there are several metabolic sources of acetyl CoA, it is most commonly derived from glycolysis. Acetyl CoA availability is significant, because it initiates lipogenesis. Lipogenesis begins with acetyl CoA and advances by the subsequent addition of two carbon atoms from another acetyl CoA; this process is repeated until fatty acids are the appropriate length. Because this is a bond-creating anabolic process, ATP is consumed. However, the creation of triglycerides and lipids is an efficient way of storing the energy available in carbohydrates. Triglycerides and lipids, high-energy molecules, are stored in adipose tissue until they are needed.

Although lipogenesis occurs in the cytoplasm, the necessary acetyl CoA is created in the mitochondria and cannot be transported across the mitochondrial membrane. To solve this problem, pyruvate is converted into both oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA. Two different enzymes are required for these conversions. Oxaloacetate forms via the action of pyruvate carboxylase, whereas the action of pyruvate dehydrogenase creates acetyl CoA. Oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA combine to form citrate, which can cross the mitochondrial membrane and enter the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, citrate is converted back into oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA. Oxaloacetate is converted into malate and then into pyruvate. Pyruvate crosses back across the mitochondrial membrane to wait for the next cycle of lipogenesis. The acetyl CoA is converted into malonyl CoA that is used to synthesize fatty acids. [link] summarizes the pathways of lipid metabolism.

Lipid metabolism

This figure shows the different reactions that take place for lipid metabolism.
Lipids may follow one of several pathways during metabolism. Glycerol and fatty acids follow different pathways.

Chapter review

Lipids are available to the body from three sources. They can be ingested in the diet, stored in the adipose tissue of the body, or synthesized in the liver. Fats ingested in the diet are digested in the small intestine. The triglycerides are broken down into monoglycerides and free fatty acids, then imported across the intestinal mucosa. Once across, the triglycerides are resynthesized and transported to the liver or adipose tissue. Fatty acids are oxidized through fatty acid or β-oxidation into two-carbon acetyl CoA molecules, which can then enter the Krebs cycle to generate ATP. If excess acetyl CoA is created and overloads the capacity of the Krebs cycle, the acetyl CoA can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. When glucose is limited, ketone bodies can be oxidized and used for fuel. Excess acetyl CoA generated from excess glucose or carbohydrate ingestion can be used for fatty acid synthesis or lipogenesis. Acetyl CoA is used to create lipids, triglycerides, steroid hormones, cholesterol, and bile salts. Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids, making them easier for the body to process.

Questions & Answers

This app should be updated too much as there is very little information for some topics.I hope you will consider my information....
aman Reply
adenohypophysis is made up of what type of cells and what is the name of those cells?
Mannu Reply
armstrong Reply
motor root of the trigeminal nerve
what is the nervous system about
what passes through foramen ovale?
Farah Reply
what are the organelles of a cell
Amina Reply
muscular system
nucleus ribosome Golgi body call membrane cytoplasm
these are the cellular components that functions to provide energy,remove waste and cell division
Organelles of the cell are: Mitochondria,Ribosome,golgi apparatus, nucleus, secretory granules, nuclear e t c
how can we maintain the internal living things
Choolwe Reply
how many seconds does a human will stop if you sneeze
Kharl Reply
1 sec not specific
physiology of vision
Sudipta Reply
Can pure water become gel like?
ovie Reply
what is Homeostasis
Laura Reply
It is the ability of an organism to co ordinate it's internal environment so as to achieve balance in all areas
what is anatomy
Sandra Reply
what is physiology
The study of how the body works
the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of leaving organisms and their parts including all physical and chemical processes
the study of human body . phicically and chemically it's called anotomy physiology
the branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms
which vein do we inject to give infusions
it is the scientific study of the body structure
What Choolwe Muselitata said is the definition of anatomy
Physiology can also be described as the way in which a living organism or bodily part functions
Anotomy is the science which we humen body of structure and function know as the anotomy
study of the body funtion and structure
functional study of the body
it is the study about the functions of body organs
what are the vital sign procedure
jeniffer Reply
You start the TPR then BP after explaining the procedure to the patient and your requirements ready.
which type of vein to you inject to give infusions?
how long do u take radial pulse
Flavian Reply
1 minute
You can take it for 15 seconds , the number you got you multiply wth 2
but in the aspect of the multiplying that isn't right
radial pulse kya hai?
for more accurate values you must do the 1 minute
1 minute.
60 seconds
1 minute
yes @sabina
What is homeostasis
Winter Reply
Homeostasis is the state of relative stability of the body's environment
what are fluids
fluid is a substance that has no fixed shape and yield easily to external pressure
Difference between hemostasis and homeostasis
Hemostasis is blocking or stopping blood flow from a damaged blood vessel by coagulation of that vessel or obstructing it.
Homeostasis is a balanced state. An equilibrium. The body does this by regulating itself by using hormones and neurotransmitters to keep chemicals balanced within the body.
Examples of site of homeostasis
For example, to much calcium in the blood would stimulate the release of calcitonin from the thyroid gland. Calcitonin will decrease calcium levels by depositing it into the skeleton. This is known as bone deposition, a homeostatic mechanism. Parathyroid hormone is the opposite to calcitonin.
There are a lot of homeostatic mechanisms in the body. Insulin and glucagon is another one. These two regulate glucose (sugar) levels in the blood. High glucose levels would cause insulin from the pancreas beta cells. Insulin lowers blood sugar. Glucagon increases blood sugar
what is the function of spleen
Bankole Reply
It filtrate and store the blood
it helps fight pathogens
old RBC are recycled in spleen and platelets and WBC are stored there
spleen is also called as graveyard of rbc
It control laughing
combing with stomach , it regulates digestion
In vertebrates, including humans, a ductless vascular gland, located in the left upper abdomen near the stomach, which destroys old red blood cells, removes debris from the bloodstream, acts as a reservoir of blood, and produces lymphocytes.

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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