<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

In polyandrous mating systems, one female mates with many males. These types of systems are much rarer than monogamous and polygynous mating systems. In pipefishes and seahorses, males receive the eggs from the female, fertilize them, protect them within a pouch, and give birth to the offspring ( [link] ). Therefore, the female is able to provide eggs to several males without the burden of carrying the fertilized eggs.

Photo (a) shows a yellow sea horse. (b) shows a pipefish, which is green and tubular with a long snout.
Polyandrous mating, in which one female mates with many males, occurs in the (a) seahorse and the (b) pipefish. (credit a: modification of work by Brian Gratwicke; credit b: modification of work by Stephen Childs)

Simple learned behaviors

The majority of the behaviors previously discussed were innate or at least have an innate component (variations on the innate behaviors may be learned). They are inherited and the behaviors do not change in response to signals from the environment. Conversely, learned behaviors, even though they may have instinctive components, allow an organism to adapt to changes in the environment and are modified by previous experiences. Simple learned behaviors include habituation and imprinting—both are important to the maturation process of young animals.

Habituation

Habituation is a simple form of learning in which an animal stops responding to a stimulus after a period of repeated exposure. This is a form of non-associative learning, as the stimulus is not associated with any punishment or reward. Prairie dogs typically sound an alarm call when threatened by a predator, but they become habituated to the sound of human footsteps when no harm is associated with this sound, therefore, they no longer respond to them with an alarm call. In this example, habituation is specific to the sound of human footsteps, as the animals still respond to the sounds of potential predators.

Imprinting

Imprinting is a type of learning that occurs at a particular age or a life stage that is rapid and independent of the species involved. Hatchling ducks recognize the first adult they see, their mother, and make a bond with her. A familiar sight is ducklings walking or swimming after their mothers ( [link] ). This is another type of non-associative learning, but is very important in the maturation process of these animals as it encourages them to stay near their mother so they will be protected, greatly increasing their chances of survival. However, if newborn ducks see a human before they see their mother, they will imprint on the human and follow it in just the same manner as they would follow their real mother.

Photo shows a mother duck and ducklings swimming in the water.
The attachment of ducklings to their mother is an example of imprinting. (credit: modification of work by Mark Harkin)

The International Crane Foundation has helped raise the world’s population of whooping cranes from 21 individuals to about 600. Imprinting hatchlings has been a key to success: biologists wear full crane costumes so the birds never “see” humans. Watch this video to learn more.

Conditioned behavior

Conditioned behaviors are types of associative learning, where a stimulus becomes associated with a consequence. During operant conditioning, the behavioral response is modified by its consequences, with regards to its form, strength, or frequency.

Questions & Answers

Simple term of science
Palesa Reply
what does it mean
gopal
it's means what do u know about biology?
Phathu
what is immunisation
Melysa
what is the biology? what do you know about biology
Phathu Reply
biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.
Julia
The study of all aspects of life. The study of all living organisms (such as animal cells and plant cells) in greater detail (their structure and how they function). It's a very broad science.
juanita
what is prokaryotic
Bhaskar Reply
what is pathogens
Bhaskar
transistion metals....
Wasik Reply
Why study ecology
Amos Reply
What name is given to group 8metals on a periodic table
Amos
what is evolution
Elia Reply
Is the gradual change of something it can be either organisms
Amos
which of the following statements about the moss life cycle is false?
Israel Reply
posterior lobe of pitutary contains what?
MR Reply
What if vincristine and colchicibe disrupt mitosis by binding to tubulin
Rohith Reply
A plant in the understory of a forest displays a segmented stem and slender leaves arranged in a whorl. It is probably....
Israel Reply
How did the development of a vascular system contribute to the increase in size of plants?
Israel
If a flower lacked a megasporangium and microsporangium, what type of gametes would not form?
Israel
Seed plants are.. A. all homosporous B. mostly homosporous with some heterosporous C. mostly heterosporous with some homosporous D. all heterosporous
Israel
Besides the seed, what other major structure diminishes a plant's reliance on water for reproduction?
Israel
what role did the adaptations of seed and pollen play in the development and expansion of seed plants?
Israel
Some cycads are considered endangered species and their trade is severely restricted. Customs officials stop suspected smugglers who claim that the plants in their possession are palm trees, not cycads. How would a botanist distinguish between the two types of plants?
Israel
What are the two structures that allow angiosperms to be the dominant form of plant life in most terrestrial ecosystems?
Israel
how are carbohydrates,proteins and fats formed from triose phosphate
fonyuy Reply
Why does the actin filament only move in one direction? Describe in great detail.
Lashonda Reply
Two events happen when calcium binds to troponin.
Lashonda
which of the following statements about plant division is false?
Israel Reply
😂😂😂 i dont know how i reached here
esther
What are the events that occur in each phase of interphase
Hazey Reply
what is photosynthesis
Victor Reply
The process plants use to convert sunlight into food (energy).
juanita
Some other organisms use
juanita
types of photosynthesis
Victor
ps1 and ps2
smritilekha

Get the best Biology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Biology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask