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Photo is of a snapdragon with a pink flower.
These pink flowers of a heterozygote snapdragon result from incomplete dominance. (credit: “storebukkebruse”/Flickr)


A variation on incomplete dominance is codominance    , in which both alleles for the same characteristic are simultaneously expressed in the heterozygote. An example of codominance is the MN blood groups of humans. The M and N alleles are expressed in the form of an M or N antigen present on the surface of red blood cells. Homozygotes ( L M L M and L N L N ) express either the M or the N allele, and heterozygotes ( L M L N ) express both alleles equally. In a self-cross between heterozygotes expressing a codominant trait, the three possible offspring genotypes are phenotypically distinct. However, the 1:2:1 genotypic ratio characteristic of a Mendelian monohybrid cross still applies.

Multiple alleles

Mendel implied that only two alleles, one dominant and one recessive, could exist for a given gene. We now know that this is an oversimplification. Although individual humans (and all diploid organisms) can only have two alleles for a given gene, multiple alleles may exist at the population level such that many combinations of two alleles are observed. Note that when many alleles exist for the same gene, the convention is to denote the most common phenotype or genotype among wild animals as the wild type (often abbreviated “+”); this is considered the standard or norm. All other phenotypes or genotypes are considered variants of this standard, meaning that they deviate from the wild type. The variant may be recessive or dominant to the wild-type allele.

An example of multiple alleles is coat color in rabbits ( [link] ). Here, four alleles exist for the c gene. The wild-type version, C + C + , is expressed as brown fur. The chinchilla phenotype, c ch c ch , is expressed as black-tipped white fur. The Himalayan phenotype, c h c h , has black fur on the extremities and white fur elsewhere. Finally, the albino, or “colorless” phenotype, cc , is expressed as white fur. In cases of multiple alleles, dominance hierarchies can exist. In this case, the wild-type allele is dominant over all the others, chinchilla is incompletely dominant over Himalayan and albino, and Himalayan is dominant over albino. This hierarchy, or allelic series, was revealed by observing the phenotypes of each possible heterozygote offspring.

This illustration shows the four different variants for coat color in rabbits at the c allele. The genotype CC produces the wild type phenotype, which is brown. The genotype c^{ch}c^{ch} produces the chinchilla phenotype, which is black-tipped white fur. The genotype c^{h}c^{h} produces the Himalayan phenotype, which is white on the body and black on the extremities. The genotype cc produces the recessive phenotype, which is white
Four different alleles exist for the rabbit coat color ( C ) gene.

The complete dominance of a wild-type phenotype over all other mutants often occurs as an effect of “dosage” of a specific gene product, such that the wild-type allele supplies the correct amount of gene product whereas the mutant alleles cannot. For the allelic series in rabbits, the wild-type allele may supply a given dosage of fur pigment, whereas the mutants supply a lesser dosage or none at all. Interestingly, the Himalayan phenotype is the result of an allele that produces a temperature-sensitive gene product that only produces pigment in the cooler extremities of the rabbit’s body.

Alternatively, one mutant allele can be dominant over all other phenotypes, including the wild type. This may occur when the mutant allele somehow interferes with the genetic message so that even a heterozygote with one wild-type allele copy expresses the mutant phenotype. One way in which the mutant allele can interfere is by enhancing the function of the wild-type gene product or changing its distribution in the body. One example of this is the Antennapedia mutation in Drosophila ( [link] ). In this case, the mutant allele expands the distribution of the gene product, and as a result, the Antennapedia heterozygote develops legs on its head where its antennae should be.

Questions & Answers

the nerve cell
Mustapha Reply
differences between Homo sapiens and other primates
Aphiwe Reply
what is cell?
V.S.Nikhil Reply
The smallest structure and functional unit
Hydra reproduce through which process
Saint Reply
which is smallest organ in our body
pineal gland
Yh in the ears...
why you hand plam is sweating in everytime
who is the father of mycology
Sagar Reply
Heinrich Anton de Bary
describe the similarities and differences between cytokinesis mechanism found in animal cells versus in plant cells
hiro Reply
what is life?
life is the existantce of indvidual human or animal.
are humans beings considered to have the eukaryotic cells
success Reply
eukaryotes are organisms that possess cells with a nucleus enclosed in a membrane, humans, and all complex organisms are eukaryotes.
so humans and animals also have cell membranes.... cause I did this test prep and they said plants...I just want to be sure
and thank you for your reply it was helpful👍✌
eu= "perfect", "good", karyon= nut, amound, nucleus
you're welcome. Plants are also eukaryotes.
plants, like animals, possess a nucleus bound by a membrane.
similarities and differences between cytokinesis mechanism found in animal cell vs cell division
Raymark Reply
what is the name of a male flower?
Ikeomu Reply
staminate means flower containing only stamen
what is the definition of evolution in a population?
Homero Reply
the slow changing of a species to adapt to any changes in the environment or how it feeds/hunts. im not good at explaining things lol.
the organ which is sensitive to light in euglena
Fatimah Reply
the organ which is sensitive to light in euglena is
all chlorophyll containing motile cells are sensitive to light
there is no more other chapter
Sandeep Reply
Give tow examples for nutritional deficiency Diseases-
Singampalli Reply
How does a plant cell look like
Sang Reply
in a sleepers form
what do you mean ? I could not understand
they have a regular shape and a large vacoule
I thought it looked like rectangle
a stage in mitosis wherein in spindle fibers begin to shorten to pu the sister chromatids away from each other towards the opposite ends of the cell
Earl Reply
a stage in interphase where chromosome s are duplicated

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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