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Human Anatomy and Physiology is designed for the two-semester anatomy and physiology course taken by life science and allied health students. The textbook follows the scope and sequence of most Human Anatomy and Physiology courses, and its coverage and organization were informed by hundreds of instructors who teach the course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. The artwork for this textbook is aimed focusing student learning through a powerful blend of traditional depictions and instructional innovations. Color is used sparingly, to emphasize the most important aspects of any given illustration. Significant use of micrographs from the University of Michigan complement the illustrations, and provide the students with a meaningful alternate depiction of each concept. Finally, enrichment elements provide relevance and deeper context for students, particularly in the areas of health, disease, and information relevant to their intended careers.

Welcome to Anatomy and Physiology , an OpenStax resource. We created this textbook with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—helping students reach high levels of academic scholarship. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a thorough introduction to the content in an accessible format.

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OpenStax is a nonprofit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure that they are readable, accurate, and organized in accordance with the scope and sequence requirements of today’s college courses. Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, we are working to improve access to higher education for all. OpenStax is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic foundations.

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Customization

OpenStax learning resources are conceived and written with flexibility in mind so that they can be customized for each course. Our textbooks provide a solid foundation on which instructors can build their own texts. Instructors can select the sections that are most relevant to their curricula and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of their students. Instructors are encouraged to expand on existing examples in the text by adding unique context via geographically localized applications and topical connections.

Questions & Answers

action of gluteus medius and minimus
Green Reply
Lateral rotation of the hip joint
Hertzo
Briefly explain location of ecg on a patient
Prince Reply
it is a machine that gives a graphical representation of heart beat
Nani
Briefly explain location of ecg leads on a patient?
Prince
in ecg we use electrical leads over the chest ,ancle and wrist
Nani
what is the anatomical and function difference between paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia ?
Rada Reply
types of tissue in human
Preety Reply
charactetistic Of cartilaginous tissue
Preety
what is theRecurrent infection?
pankaj Reply
what do you mean about recurrent infection
pankaj
Recurrent or persistent infection is a manifestation of primary immuno deficiency
Kedha's
weakens the immune system, allowing infections and other health problems to occur more easily
Kedha's
lysis of RBC
Abdirizack
What is barometric pressure
Kedha's Reply
what is the agglutination advantage
Gopal Reply
the functions of the liver
Nana Reply
it produces bile juice which is used to make the food smaller
Kedha's
it also plays an important role in conversion of amino acid into urea
Komal
it also has role in gluconeogenesis in which amino acids and lipids convert into glucose.
Komal
during fetal life it's a center for hemopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
Komal
it filters, or removes, harmful substances from the blood
Kedha's
It stores nutrients, such as vitamins and iron,for the body
Kedha's
what is the largest gland in human body
Shahid Reply
liver
rachna
correct
Said
correct
dominic
thyroid gland
Kedha's
thyroid is largest endocrine gland
Komal
describe microscopic structures of the kidney
Nana Reply
kidney is covered by fibrous capsule, consists of an outer cortex and inner medulla with medullary pyramids. The microscopic structure is seen as 1-2 millions of nephrons and collecting tubule.
Komal
identify the four major tissue types
Binkheir Reply
connective epithelial
Nana
two ramining
Binkheir
muscle nervous
Nana
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue
Mel
tell me about urine formation
Nana Reply
it includes three steps. ultrafiltration selective reabsorption tubular secretion
Komal
ultrafiltration also known as glomerular filteration. All solutes up to 4nm size and water can freely pass through the filtering membrane.
Komal
selective reabsorption : About more than 99% of water ,electrolytes and other substances are reabsorbed by the tubular epithelial cells. The reabsorbed subtances move into interstitial fluid and then into blood of peritubular capillaries .
Komal
The substances like water ,glucose,amino acids and electrolyte are reabsorbed
Komal
tublar secretion: the substances are transported from blood to again into the renal tubules
Komal
and then those are excreted out as urine
Komal
internal and external structures of the kidney
Nana Reply
how the kidney works
Nana
on the bases of pressure and filtration
Said
General
Nana
excretion of wasts, role in hb, role in vit D synthesis
Said
care to explain?
Okoye
yes plx
Nana
the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic
Binkheir Reply
eukaryotic don't have nucleus and prokaryotic have nucleus.
Emmmanuel
no, the eukaryotic has well enveloped nucleus and prokaryotic has nucleus without membrane which is also known as nucleoid
Komal
Eukaryotes have organized nucleus and prokaryotes don't have organized nucleus
Kedha's
what is staphylococcus?
Binkheir Reply
Its a bacteria
kannan
they also cause staph infections
Nana
on the skin
Nana
the definition of staphylococcus?
Binkheir
pathogenic organism
Frank
Spherical shaped bacteria arranged in different rows causing infections
PL
type of bacteria
Kedha's
gram negative or positive?
Peter
gram positive
Komal

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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