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Consider a situation where the United States and Mexico each have 40 workers. For example, as [link] shows, if the United States divides its labor so that 40 workers are making shoes, then, since it takes four workers in the United States to make 1,000 shoes, a total of 10,000 shoes will be produced. (If four workers can make 1,000 shoes, then 40 workers will make 10,000 shoes). If the 40 workers in the United States are making refrigerators, and each worker can produce 1,000 refrigerators, then a total of 40,000 refrigerators will be produced.

Production possibilities before trade with complete specialization
Country Shoe Production — using 40 workers Refrigerator Production — using 40 workers
United States 10,000 shoes or 40,000 refrigerators
Mexico 8,000 shoes or 10,000 refrigerators

As always, the slope of the production possibility frontier for each country is the opportunity cost of one refrigerator in terms of foregone shoe production–when labor is transferred from producing the latter to producing the former (see [link] ).

Production possibility frontiers

The graphs show two production possibility frontiers (PPFs) for the United States (graph a) and Mexico (graph b). The PPFs are linear. The x-axis plots refrigerators and the y-axis plots shoes. (a) With 40 workers, the United States can produce either 10,000 shoes and zero refrigerators or 40,000 refrigerators and zero shoes. (b) With 40 workers, Mexico can produce a maximum of 8,000 shoes and zero refrigerators, or 10,000 refrigerators and zero shoes. Point B is where they end up after trade.
(a) With 40 workers, the United States can produce either 10,000 shoes and zero refrigerators or 40,000 refrigerators and zero shoes. (b) With 40 workers, Mexico can produce a maximum of 8,000 shoes and zero refrigerators, or 10,000 refrigerators and zero shoes. All other points on the production possibility line are possible combinations of the two goods that can be produced given current resources. Point A on both graphs is where the countries start producing and consuming before trade. Point B is where they end up after trade.

Let’s say that, in the situation before trade, each nation prefers to produce a combination of shoes and refrigerators that is shown at point A. [link] shows the output of each good for each country and the total output for the two countries.

Total production at point a before trade
Country Current Shoe Production Current Refrigerator Production
United States 5,000 20,000
Mexico 4,000 5,000
Total 9,000 25,000

Continuing with this scenario, each country transfers some amount of labor toward its area of comparative advantage. For example, the United States transfers six workers away from shoes and toward producing refrigerators. As a result, U.S. production of shoes decreases by 1,500 units (6/4 × 1,000), while its production of refrigerators increases by 6,000 (that is, 6/1 × 1,000). Mexico also moves production toward its area of comparative advantage, transferring 10 workers away from refrigerators and toward production of shoes. As a result, production of refrigerators in Mexico falls by 2,500 (10/4 × 1,000), but production of shoes increases by 2,000 pairs (10/5 × 1,000). Notice that when both countries shift production toward each of their comparative advantages (what they are relatively better at), their combined production of both goods rises, as shown in [link] . The reduction of shoe production by 1,500 pairs in the United States is more than offset by the gain of 2,000 pairs of shoes in Mexico, while the reduction of 2,500 refrigerators in Mexico is more than offset by the additional 6,000 refrigerators produced in the United States.

Questions & Answers

what is the cause of a country's population
Destiny Reply
what is producer surplus
Destiny Reply
is the excess earns btn wat a producer was willing to charge for e commodity and wat actually receives after selling it
rivan
OK good
Destiny
yeap
Bright
what is supply curve
Destiny Reply
are curve that do not obey the law of supply eg aren't +ve
rivan
half of 1%
Destiny
as in what do u mean by that
rivan
it simply shows the quantity of goods that a film is willing to supply at each price of a commodity
Destiny
OK what is the law of supply as u said
Destiny
It is the indifference curve that indicates the aggregate responsiveness of supply to the price of a commodity, and sometimes its demand of that same commodity.
Gh
nice
Destiny
pls explain how indifference curve connects to the aggregate responsiveness of supply to the price of a commodity
JOSHUA
law of supply according to me states that wen thea z higher price of commodity, the higher will be the supply and lower the supply will be for a commodity other factors remain constant
rivan
Joshua be clear to your QN plizzz
rivan
pls read Gh's comment and break down for me
JOSHUA
may be he can explain more because am am also not getting what he was meaning in that statement
rivan
plizzz GH explain to us
rivan
When demand and supply intersection
Pronoy
then it z called what
rivan
can I learning what is meaning off economics
Jimcaale
can you tall me what is meaning
Jimcaale
what is consumers surplus
Destiny Reply
is a difference btn consumers planned expenditure and actual experience on the commodity
rivan
OK good
Destiny
What exactly are factors that affects Demand and Supply?
Chandrapaul Reply
demand factors price o commodity size o population level o advertising season 4 commodity testes and preferences price o other related commodity level o consumers income government policy on taxation
rivan
supply factors general price level natural factor level o taxation technology political climate cost o production number o producers aggregate demand working conditions
rivan
yea___ Demographical psychographical geographical factors also account for determination of demand and supply
Gh
definition of economics
Emmanuel Reply
economics means to manage the limited resources one has in order to maximize satisfaction.
sekou
Economic is a science which study of human behavior as a relationship between and scare means which have alternative uses"
Jacob
what is price elasticity of supply
Destiny Reply
What is the law of demand and supply
Destiny
This is when there is a greater percentage change in the supply of commodities as per the percentage change in price. More producers tend to supply more when there is a higher change in the price of commodities and vice versa when price drops.
Gh
this seems to explain making decisions on the margins very clearly
JOSHUA Reply
what are the importance of studying Economics ?
Amoako Reply
Economization
Zeleman
to relate economic principles to the problems o development. exposes students to e future. acquire knowledge. etc ....
rivan
it teaches how to make choice and decisions in our homes and every across the nation
Destiny
what is price elasticity of supply
Destiny
five definition of economic s
Emmanuel
what is monopoly
Baku Reply
is a structure where one seller of a commodity has no close substitute with very many buyers
rivan
tanx
Baku
a market structure where a particular good has no close substitutes
Koushik
examples railways
Shashank
is one man business where there is no competetor/competetion and vice versa
Destiny
what is income elasticity of demand.
kwagala Reply
percentage change in quantity demanded/percentage change in income
Koushik
or is the measure of degree of responsiveness o quality demanded o the commodity to change in the income of consumer
rivan
percentage change in quantity ÷ percentage change in income
Baku
it the percentage change in quantity over percentage in surply
Destiny
the percentage change in quantity over percentage change in income at the end of the day's work done
Destiny
what is medium
Chinedu Reply
what is medium in terms of economics
Chinedu
as u mean medium of exchange or just as a word
rivan
Your question is not clear @Chinedu. In economics medium is often used in relation to time e.g medium term. So you need to be more specific on which medium you mean. Otherwise it "medium" means what it means everywhere else.
elizabeth
what is medium of exchange
JOSHUA
What is the difference between inferior goods and complementary goods
Bernard Reply
inferior goods are goods whose demand reduces as consumers income increases
rivan
while complementary goods are goods which are jointly demand
rivan
Wow thanks
Bernard
you are welcome
rivan
define the term derived demand
rivan Reply
anyone to help with QN
rivan
situation in which a product is acquired not for it's sake but to help in the production of other goods. for example we say labour has a derived demand becos labour services is required to help in the production of other goods and services.
PETER
The Market equilibrium quantity is___ tons of bolts, the socailly optimal quantity of bolt production is ____ tons
Jackie Reply
please what are the key principles of Economics?
Amoako

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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