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[link] presents an aggregate demand (AD) curve. Just like the aggregate supply curve, the horizontal axis shows real GDP and the vertical axis shows the price level. The AD curve slopes down, which means that increases in the price level of outputs lead to a lower quantity of total spending. The reasons behind this shape are related to how changes in the price level affect the different components of aggregate demand. The following components make up aggregate demand: consumption spending (C), investment spending (I), government spending (G), and spending on exports (X) minus imports (M): C + I + G + X – M.

The aggregate demand curve

The graph shows a downward sloping aggregate demand curve.
Aggregate demand (AD) slopes down, showing that, as the price level rises, the amount of total spending on domestic goods and services declines.

The wealth effect holds that as the price level increases, the buying power of savings that people have stored up in bank accounts and other assets will diminish, eaten away to some extent by inflation. Because a rise in the price level reduces people’s wealth, consumption spending will fall as the price level rises.

The interest rate effect is that as prices for outputs rise, the same purchases will take more money or credit to accomplish. This additional demand for money and credit will push interest rates higher. In turn, higher interest rates will reduce borrowing by businesses for investment purposes and reduce borrowing by households for homes and cars—thus reducing consumption and investment spending.

The foreign price effect points out that if prices rise in the United States while remaining fixed in other countries, then goods in the United States will be relatively more expensive compared to goods in the rest of the world. U.S. exports    will be relatively more expensive, and the quantity of exports sold will fall. U.S. imports    from abroad will be relatively cheaper, so the quantity of imports will rise. Thus, a higher domestic price level, relative to price levels in other countries, will reduce net export expenditures.

Truth be told, among economists all three of these effects are controversial, in part because they do not seem to be very large. For this reason, the aggregate demand curve in [link] slopes downward fairly steeply; the steep slope indicates that a higher price level for final outputs reduces aggregate demand for all three of these reasons, but that the change in the quantity of aggregate demand as a result of changes in price level is not very large.

Read the following Work It Out feature to learn how to interpret the AD/AS model. In this example, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and the price level are given for the imaginary country of Xurbia.

Interpreting the ad/as model

[link] shows information on aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and the price level for the imaginary country of Xurbia. What information does [link] tell you about the state of the Xurbia’s economy? Where is the equilibrium price level and output level (this is the SR macroequilibrium)? Is Xurbia risking inflationary pressures or facing high unemployment? How can you tell?

Price level: aggregate demand/aggregate supply
Price Level Aggregate Demand Aggregate Supply
110 $700 $600
120 $690 $640
130 $680 $680
140 $670 $720
150 $660 $740
160 $650 $760
170 $640 $770

To begin to use the AD/AS model, it is important to plot the AS and AD curves from the data provided. What is the equilibrium?

Step 1. Draw your x- and y-axis. Label the x-axis Real GDP and the y-axis Price Level.

Step 2. Plot AD on your graph.

Step 3. Plot AS on your graph.

Step 4. Look at [link] which provides a visual to aid in your analysis.

The ad/as curves

The figure shows a downward sloping aggregate demand line intersecting with an aggregate supply curve at approximately (680, 130).
AD and AS curves created from the data in [link] .

Step 5. Determine where AD and AS intersect. This is the equilibrium with price level at 130 and real GDP at $680.

Step 6. Look at the graph to determine where equilibrium is located. We can see that this equilibrium is fairly far from where the AS curve becomes near-vertical (or at least quite steep) which seems to start at about $750 of real output. This implies that the economy is not close to potential GDP. Thus, unemployment will be high. In the relatively flat part of the AS curve, where the equilibrium occurs, changes in the price level will not be a major concern, since such changes are likely to be small.

Step 7. Determine what the steep portion of the AS curve indicates. Where the AS curve is steep, the economy is at or close to potential GDP.

Step 8. Draw conclusions from the given information:

  • If equilibrium occurs in the flat range of AS, then economy is not close to potential GDP and will be experiencing unemployment, but stable price level.
  • If equilibrium occurs in the steep range of AS, then the economy is close or at potential GDP and will be experiencing rising price levels or inflationary pressures, but will have a low unemployment rate.

Questions & Answers

what is the real definition of economics
jegede Reply
Economics is the study of the use and allocation of (scarce) resources
Jegede, what is the "non" real definition of economics then?
incidence of production there is a choice do you agree? justify
Oduro Reply
What is incidence of production? do u mean incidence of tax?
I want to know about Richard lipsey and robin as the economist and their definition proposed by them
Musa Reply
what are the causes of scarcity And what are the goal scarcity
scarcity only exist because human wants are unlimited...if human just know how to be contented then scarcity will not exist
what is ment by possibility curve
define accounting?teatly
Ahmed Reply
Is the recording, classifying, interpreting record of all transaction
is still the act of measuring, interpreting and communicating of financial issues
measuring business or individual finance
Accounting is the process of collecting,recording,classifying,summarizing and interpreting/presenting financial data to the stakeholders for their economic decision making
what are the different between need and wants
Musa Reply
the major difference is necessity
explain any four tool of monetary policy to solve the problem of inflation.
Alicesha Reply
bank rate,open market operation,legal reserve requirement
what's marginal utility?
Abena Reply
the additional utility you get if you can consume one more unit of the good x
Thanks... then what's the law of diminishing marginal utility ?
The utility decreases with every unit you consume (most of the time). The first unit of consumption will therefore give you the highest utility. Sorry about my english
Okay... I understand now
hello room
one of the leading industrial nations of the world ranking second in manufacturing output after the USA is a. Russia b. Germany c. Britain d. Japan
good morning
no other questions?
I am from India
same question are not mentioned
first you give my answer
dipun naik
whats your question
whats your question
I am from India
retype the questions
marginal untility is the last point desire of a consumer that gets benefit from related good/ service.
Why are some countries rich and why are some countries poor? . is poorness a human cause?
well several factors are included...it's not just because of human..
what is a correct reason
countries which are rich they are developed countries they have good resources minerals technology power knowledge to use the resources poor countries are under developing countries they have lack of resources, knowledge and if they have these so they dont know the use of these resources.
so these knowledgeable people move /migrate to the other rich/developed countries
Poverty of a country is also related to cultural, economical, and military domination. Usually, the dominant country imposes all of these powers when diplomatically needed or sometimes by force.
You can also have considerable poverty in a rich country when such poverty is measured within sectors of its population. In other words, economic indicators can sometime mask such poverty.
For example, the U.S.A. has a very high measure of GDP per capital, but millions of Americans ( a considerable amount are children) live in poverty.
So poverty is not an easy social phenomenon to pin down neatly into one social realm or another.
pls what is price ceiling
its the max price a seller can charge for a product, mostly imposed by the government to protect the consumer
its the max price a seller can charge for a product, mostly imposed by the government to protect the consumer plus it must be imposed below the equilibrium price in order to be effective. A shortage will also be created after its imposition.
can happiness be measured?
Happiness is too subjective to be measured as an economic phenomenon or reality. I think that happiness happens at several levels of the human condition: biological, psychological, intellectual and at the level of the soul. How can economic theory be scientific about it?
about I have read of something called gross happiness index.
what's Neo classical definition of economic
economic is a social science studied as a relationship between end and needs scarce which have alternative uses
what's equilibrium
What is economies of scale
Jeremiah Reply
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the sum of total costs saved or that a firm has advantage over its competitors due to its scale of operations. More specifically, it is the firm's cost savings per unit of output that it gains as its production increases in scale.
one of the leading industrial nations of the world ranking second in manufacturing output after the USA is ......... a. Russia b. Germany c. Britain d. Japan
what is supply of demand?
Joseph Reply
supply of demand?
1)importance of internal trade. 2) international trade barriers 3) principles of international trade
umar Reply
how can tell me about the GDP
explain the basic economic concept using ppc ?
Nurul Reply
scarcity can be represented by imagining a country producing only 2 goods and the resources to do so are fixed, hence a choice must be made and how to divide the limited resources between the two goods. you can choose any combination of the two goods that fall directly on the curve which represents
maximum efficiency and the highest possible output at this point in time. if you choose to not utilize all the resources then you will be inefficient (not to your best ability) and produce below the curve. however if you have increases in technology or find new resources you can shift the curve out
Please what is meant by resources allocation
albert Reply
Please I need explanation about resources allocation
what is cost
Mohit Reply
Cost:-is the sacrifice or measured price paid to acquire, produce or maintain a good or service
To what extend is labour, capital, land and entrepreneur considered as free good
#what is public finance
Ryan Reply
public finance is the study of how the government generates and spends to facilitate the day to day operations. simply put its an analysis of the income/expenditure statement of the government and how it affects welfare
#kk fenks
you say it all
what is economic model
chantal Reply
it may differ as different economist model ,but as to me it is a formal presentation of economic theory.
what are the factors affecting utility

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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