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[link] presents an aggregate demand (AD) curve. Just like the aggregate supply curve, the horizontal axis shows real GDP and the vertical axis shows the price level. The AD curve slopes down, which means that increases in the price level of outputs lead to a lower quantity of total spending. The reasons behind this shape are related to how changes in the price level affect the different components of aggregate demand. The following components make up aggregate demand: consumption spending (C), investment spending (I), government spending (G), and spending on exports (X) minus imports (M): C + I + G + X – M.

The aggregate demand curve

The graph shows a downward sloping aggregate demand curve.
Aggregate demand (AD) slopes down, showing that, as the price level rises, the amount of total spending on domestic goods and services declines.

The wealth effect holds that as the price level increases, the buying power of savings that people have stored up in bank accounts and other assets will diminish, eaten away to some extent by inflation. Because a rise in the price level reduces people’s wealth, consumption spending will fall as the price level rises.

The interest rate effect is that as prices for outputs rise, the same purchases will take more money or credit to accomplish. This additional demand for money and credit will push interest rates higher. In turn, higher interest rates will reduce borrowing by businesses for investment purposes and reduce borrowing by households for homes and cars—thus reducing consumption and investment spending.

The foreign price effect points out that if prices rise in the United States while remaining fixed in other countries, then goods in the United States will be relatively more expensive compared to goods in the rest of the world. U.S. exports    will be relatively more expensive, and the quantity of exports sold will fall. U.S. imports    from abroad will be relatively cheaper, so the quantity of imports will rise. Thus, a higher domestic price level, relative to price levels in other countries, will reduce net export expenditures.

Truth be told, among economists all three of these effects are controversial, in part because they do not seem to be very large. For this reason, the aggregate demand curve in [link] slopes downward fairly steeply; the steep slope indicates that a higher price level for final outputs reduces aggregate demand for all three of these reasons, but that the change in the quantity of aggregate demand as a result of changes in price level is not very large.

Read the following Work It Out feature to learn how to interpret the AD/AS model. In this example, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and the price level are given for the imaginary country of Xurbia.

Interpreting the ad/as model

[link] shows information on aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and the price level for the imaginary country of Xurbia. What information does [link] tell you about the state of the Xurbia’s economy? Where is the equilibrium price level and output level (this is the SR macroequilibrium)? Is Xurbia risking inflationary pressures or facing high unemployment? How can you tell?

Price level: aggregate demand/aggregate supply
Price Level Aggregate Demand Aggregate Supply
110 $700 $600
120 $690 $640
130 $680 $680
140 $670 $720
150 $660 $740
160 $650 $760
170 $640 $770

To begin to use the AD/AS model, it is important to plot the AS and AD curves from the data provided. What is the equilibrium?

Step 1. Draw your x- and y-axis. Label the x-axis Real GDP and the y-axis Price Level.

Step 2. Plot AD on your graph.

Step 3. Plot AS on your graph.

Step 4. Look at [link] which provides a visual to aid in your analysis.

The ad/as curves

The figure shows a downward sloping aggregate demand line intersecting with an aggregate supply curve at approximately (680, 130).
AD and AS curves created from the data in [link] .

Step 5. Determine where AD and AS intersect. This is the equilibrium with price level at 130 and real GDP at $680.

Step 6. Look at the graph to determine where equilibrium is located. We can see that this equilibrium is fairly far from where the AS curve becomes near-vertical (or at least quite steep) which seems to start at about $750 of real output. This implies that the economy is not close to potential GDP. Thus, unemployment will be high. In the relatively flat part of the AS curve, where the equilibrium occurs, changes in the price level will not be a major concern, since such changes are likely to be small.

Step 7. Determine what the steep portion of the AS curve indicates. Where the AS curve is steep, the economy is at or close to potential GDP.

Step 8. Draw conclusions from the given information:

  • If equilibrium occurs in the flat range of AS, then economy is not close to potential GDP and will be experiencing unemployment, but stable price level.
  • If equilibrium occurs in the steep range of AS, then the economy is close or at potential GDP and will be experiencing rising price levels or inflationary pressures, but will have a low unemployment rate.

Questions & Answers

What is the difference between inferior goods and complementary goods
Bernard Reply
inferior goods are goods whose demand reduces as consumers income increases
rivan
while complementary goods are goods which are jointly demand
rivan
Wow thanks
Bernard
you are welcome
rivan
define the term derived demand
rivan Reply
The Market equilibrium quantity is___ tons of bolts, the socailly optimal quantity of bolt production is ____ tons
Jackie Reply
please what are the key principles of Economics?
Amoako
how to learn about stock exchange market?
jason Reply
how to get to clearly know about BSE and NSE
jason
hiii
santosh
hii
Leela
hlo
Peter
i wanna know about ppf
Peter
Me too
Teremi
Search in web,
Leela
search in website
Leela
Search in web,
Leela
BSE means Bombay stock exchange,and NSE national stock exchange
Leela
What are the uses stastitics in business?
Mohamud Reply
what's scarcity
Brandon Reply
scarcity is the stage at which your end becomes greater than your want.
Caasianebok
what is marginal rate of transformation
Peter Reply
difference between individual demand and market demand with illustrations.
kwagala Reply
what is market demand
kwagala
Is the total amount of goods and services that all consumers are willing and able to purchase...
Istar
market demad business
zahid
What is the different between demand and supply?
Mohamud Reply
Demand is a natural phenomenon by a person who wants a certain commodity , u can say The ablity to buy a certain commodity at a certain price is called demand
Wardan
supply is point of view from Supplier of certain commodity
Wardan
Thnks wardan sheikh
Mohamud
u can get help from Law of Demand which is When a price of certain commodity increases it's quantity demanded decreases and when the price of certain commodity decreases it's quantity demanded increases and vice versa
Wardan
and to understand supply u can understand by the help of law of supply which is when a price of certain commodity increases it's quantity supplies also increases and when price of certain commodity decreases it's quantity supplies also decreases and vice versa
Wardan
Hope u got the answer
Wardan
hi
Christian
hello
Victory
what is point?
Asmatullah
pls it's quantity supplied not quantity supplies. tanx
PETER
Peter it's just typing error if u know better u should take initiatives and start helping people or u can just shut up
Wardan
What is the labour market?
Ruchi
Ruchi Shukla it's a big topic which contains several parts , u can understand a market where there are number of employees (skilled and semiskilled )
Wardan
describe the economic systems
kivumbi
ryt nice
Destiny
what is the cause of a country's population
Destiny
Destiny Abekah the cause Is fun ahahahaha
Wardan
Hi
Crahmaan
What is going here?
Crahmaan
Hi
Jacob
what is naxion shoks any 1 can explain please
Iftikhar
hello
Hydrammeh
impact of transport and communication for economic help me
Jacob
What is the formula for calculating elasticity
Destiny Reply
Change in Quantity/Change in price
Abdul
ok
Destiny
E=%∆ in Q/ %∆ in P
ashafa
what mean elasticity
Jimcaale
change in quantity divided by change in price
mukhtaar
ok
Abdul
price elasticity = Q2-Q1/Q2+Q1/2/ P2-P1/P2+P1/2
Wardan
second formula is change in q / change in p × Q(original)/ p (original)
Wardan
Elasticity is just a measurement of change influenced by change in price , income
Wardan
change quantity /change in price
Ayaan
ok
Muhammad
change in price change in quality
Muhammad
yes
Thomas
public economy vs public choice
martha Reply
cool n you
Godwin
nice
Saratu
thank God
Destiny
so wat is going on
Destiny
please understand change in demand.
Saratu
learning is going on please.
Saratu
demand changes when the price of the commodies in the market increaaes
Destiny
amd vise veser
Destiny
thank you.
Saratu
same to u
Destiny
I need help with PED and PES
XORO Reply
Price elasticity demand
Saratu
price elasticity supply
Saratu
What are the uses of stastitics in economic and business?
Mohamud Reply
Statistics helps in analysing various economic problems such as inflation, unemployment etc by looking at numbers, trends over the years.
Samuel
it also helps in summarising mass data like income, consumption etc into measures like per capita income and per capita consumptions which are more explanatory of how an economy is performing.
Samuel
Statistics is a data interpretation tool used for collecting, classifying and analyzing data. It is an indispensable tool for an economist to understand various business and economic problems and formulate policies to tackle with them.
Samuel
good answer
Destiny
how is the firm know elasticity
Shekwonudiza Reply
What is margin?
Crahmaan
wanna know about GDP ?
Wardan Reply
yes
Leela
i would like to know about GST rather
JNUI
i've gone through many articles related to GST. but my question is, earlier, when the amount of tax was so higher, who was the winner?
JNUI
and if the amount of tax is less, then somebody must be losing some money. so who is the loss maker
JNUI
also, what I don't understand properly is the 'input tax credit'. 🤔 and the e-way bill
JNUI
Gst is an essential Tax to boost up National income
Wardan
Gst isn't ever goes too high but in cases where there is a larger expectations on Sales revenue the gst increase and vice versa
Wardan
and yes it's the only time to make revenue for Central Government under some period and certain conditions u will learn
Wardan
yeah third one the Gst is low
Wardan
the central Government is responsible for such error to not be so prudent under those policies which are applied
Wardan
deductive and inductive
Mianosama
deductive and inductive are the parts of micro economics
Wardan
What are the key elements to consider when defining economics
Samuel
scarcity, means and end
Balogun
Samuel it is defined as study of house hold Management and money matters .
Wardan
scarcity is defined as the point where demand is greater than supply
Wardan
Use scarcity,means and end in your definition
Samuel
I really love this group
Samuel
Am new to economics and you guys are making it so interesting to study
Samuel
yup seems very interesting
Criminologist
Hahaha thanks buddy
Wardan
consider a market (where there are buyers and sellers ) situation , Let's make it funny to make u understand more easy that due to some political issues It is announced by the government that every store will be closed tomorrow , the citizens who are intelligent enough to predict consequences for it
Wardan
They will start buying more and more and due to those political issue some stores were closed and few were opened so at this point the demand for product or commodity (which people are willing to buy from stores) is greater than supply
Wardan
What is GDP
XORO
what is medium
Chinedu Reply
what is medium in terms of economics
Chinedu

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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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