# 0.4 Chemical bonding  (Page 7/9)

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## Activity: building models

Using coloured balls and sticks (or any other suitable materials) build models of each type of bonding. Think about how to represent each kind of bonding. For example, covalent bonding could be represented by simply connecting the balls with sticks to represent the molecules, while for ionic bonding you may wish to construct part of the crystal lattice. Do some research on types of crystal lattices (although the section on ionic bonding only showed the crystal lattice for sodium chloride, many other types of lattices exist) and try to build some of these. Share your findings with your class and compare notes to see what types of crystal lattices they found. How would you show metallic bonding?

You should spend some time doing this activity as it will really help you to understand how atoms combine to form molecules and what the differences are between the types of bonding.

## Chemical bonding

1. Give two examples of everyday objects that contain..
1. covalent bonds
2. ionic bonds
3. metallic bonds
2. Complete the table which compares the different types of bonding:
 Covalent Ionic Metallic Types of atoms involved Nature of bond between atoms Melting Point (high/low) Conducts electricity? (yes/no) Other properties
3. Complete the table below by identifying the type of bond (covalent, ionic or metallic) in each of the compounds:
 Molecular formula Type of bond $\mathrm{H}{}_{2}\mathrm{SO}{}_{4}$ $\mathrm{FeS}$ $\mathrm{NaI}$ $\mathrm{MgCl}{}_{2}$ $\mathrm{Zn}$
4. Which of these substances will conduct electricity most effectively? Give a reason for your answer.
5. Use your knowledge of the different types of bonding to explain the following statements:
1. Swimming during an electric storm (i.e. where there is lightning) can be very dangerous.
2. Most jewellery items are made from metals.
3. Plastics are good insulators.

## The formulae of covalent compounds

To work out the formulae of covalent compounds, we need to use the valency of the atoms in the compound. This is because the valency tells us how many bonds each atom can form. This in turn can help to work out how many atoms of each element are in the compound, and therefore what its formula is. The following are some examples where this information is used to write the chemical formula of a compound.

Write the chemical formula for water

1. A molecule of water contains the elements hydrogen and oxygen .

2. The valency of hydrogen is 1 and the valency of oxygen is 2. This means that oxygen can form two bonds with other elements and each of the hydrogen atoms can form one.

3. Using the valencies of hydrogen and oxygen, we know that in a single water molecule, two hydrogen atoms will combine with one oxygen atom. The chemical formula for water is therefore:

$\mathrm{H}{}_{2}\mathrm{O}$ .

Write the chemical formula for magnesium oxide

1. A molecule of magnesium oxide contains the elements magnesium and oxygen .

2. The valency of magnesium is 2, while the valency of oxygen is also 2. In a molecule of magnesium oxide, one atom of magnesium will combine with one atomof oxygen.

3. The chemical formula for magnesium oxide is therefore:

$\mathrm{MgO}$

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP