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  • Explain work as a transfer of energy and net work as the work done by the net force.
  • Explain and apply the work-energy theorem.

Work transfers energy

What happens to the work done on a system? Energy is transferred into the system, but in what form? Does it remain in the system or move on? The answers depend on the situation. For example, if the lawn mower in [link] (a) is pushed just hard enough to keep it going at a constant speed, then energy put into the mower by the person is removed continuously by friction, and eventually leaves the system in the form of heat transfer. In contrast, work done on the briefcase by the person carrying it up stairs in [link] (d) is stored in the briefcase-Earth system and can be recovered at any time, as shown in [link] (e). In fact, the building of the pyramids in ancient Egypt is an example of storing energy in a system by doing work on the system. Some of the energy imparted to the stone blocks in lifting them during construction of the pyramids remains in the stone-Earth system and has the potential to do work.

In this section we begin the study of various types of work and forms of energy. We will find that some types of work leave the energy of a system constant, for example, whereas others change the system in some way, such as making it move. We will also develop definitions of important forms of energy, such as the energy of motion.

Net work and the work-energy theorem

We know from the study of Newton’s laws in Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion that net force causes acceleration. We will see in this section that work done by the net force gives a system energy of motion, and in the process we will also find an expression for the energy of motion.

Let us start by considering the total, or net, work done on a system. Net work is defined to be the sum of work done by all external forces—that is, net work    is the work done by the net external force F net size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } } {} . In equation form, this is W net = F net d cos θ size 12{W rSub { size 8{"net"} } =F rSub { size 8{"net"} } d"cos"θ} {} where θ size 12{θ} {} is the angle between the force vector and the displacement vector.

[link] (a) shows a graph of force versus displacement for the component of the force in the direction of the displacement—that is, an F cos θ size 12{F"cos"θ} {} vs. d size 12{d} {} graph. In this case, F cos θ size 12{F"cos"θ} {} is constant. You can see that the area under the graph is F d cos θ size 12{F"cos"θ} {} , or the work done. [link] (b) shows a more general process where the force varies. The area under the curve is divided into strips, each having an average force ( F cos θ ) i ( ave ) size 12{ \( F"cos"θ \) rSub { size 8{i \( "ave" \) } } } {} . The work done is ( F cos θ ) i ( ave ) d i size 12{ \( F"cos"θ \) rSub { size 8{i \( "ave" \) } } d rSub { size 8{i} } } {} for each strip, and the total work done is the sum of the W i size 12{W rSub { size 8{i} } } {} . Thus the total work done is the total area under the curve, a useful property to which we shall refer later.

Two drawings labele a and b. (a) A graph of force component F cosine theta versus distance d. d is along the x axis and F cosine theta is along the y axis. A line of length d is drawn parallel to the horizontal axis for some value of F cosine theta. Area under this line in the graph is shaded and is equal to F cosine theta multiplied by d. F d cosine theta is equal to work W. (b) A graph of force component F cosine theta versus distance d. d is along the x axis and F cosine theta is along the y axis. There is an inclined line and the area under it is divided into many thin vertical strips of width d sub i. The area of one vertical stripe is equal to average value of F cosine theta times d sub i which equals to work W sub i.
(a) A graph of F cos θ vs. d size 12{d} {} , when F cos θ size 12{F"cos"θ} {} is constant. The area under the curve represents the work done by the force. (b) A graph of F cos θ size 12{F"cos"q} {} vs. d size 12{d} {} in which the force varies. The work done for each interval is the area of each strip; thus, the total area under the curve equals the total work done.

Net work will be simpler to examine if we consider a one-dimensional situation where a force is used to accelerate an object in a direction parallel to its initial velocity. Such a situation occurs for the package on the roller belt conveyor system shown in [link] .

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
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Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
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Asali
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Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Cied
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Ramkumar Reply
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
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Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
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Azam
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Unit 5 - work and energy. OpenStax CNX. Jan 02, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11946/1.1
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