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This module briefly summarises the problem of gender inequality, mostly using examples from South Africa.

For most of history women's lives have been controlled by their fathers, brothers, husbands and sons. Although they have an honoured position because of their ability to have children, they have always played their part mostly in the private sphere and not in the arena where culture and history were shaped. They have always been in the background and virtually invisible in the public sphere. The oppression and disempowerment of women is the result of the thousands of years of patriarchal rule.

Women and society - case notes from south africa

While South Africa has one of the most progressive Constitutions in the world, gender discrimination, sexual violence and oppression of women continues unabated. In spite of some very positive signs (e.g. more than 30% of members of parliament are women). South Africa has the highest incidence of rape for any country that is not in a state of war, but available statistics are regarded as underestimated due to the high level of under–reporting.

Women bear the brunt of poverty and have the least access to resources. They are also most often unpaid caregivers of children, the elderly, and the terminally ill. Women are most vulnerable to infection with HIV and least empowered to negotiate safer sex.

Women and religious structures

In a survey done by the South African Gender Commission it was found that women were almost completely absent in leadership positions in all religions in the country. While some Christian groups have allowed women to be ordained as ministers during the last twenty to thirty years, there is still a lack of representation of women and in some cases even a resistance at parish level to the appointment of women ministers.

In the large African Initiated Churches (such as the Zionist Christian Church) women are excluded from the higher leadership roles, but in some of the minor churches women sometimes fulfil the role of prophet and healer. In the Roman Catholic Church women are completely excluded from leadership structures because they may not be ordained as priests.

In South Africa most of the Jewish communities are Orthodox, and they don't allow women to be ordained as Rabbis.

With the exception of a few communities (Arya Samaj and Brahma Kumaris) Hindu women are generally not allowed to become priests and therefore they are severely under–represented in the decision–making structures of Hindu religious organisations

In Islam there is no organised priesthood, but leadership and the decision–making roles are the exclusive domain of men.

These observations come from South Africa. But they could have been duplicated in almost any country on Earth. Relgion, more than any other social institution, have been persistent in denying women the opportunity to develop to their full potential.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Learning about religion. OpenStax CNX. Apr 18, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11780/1.1
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