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Review question of Protection and Security

Briefly explain how single, double, and circular buffering can be used to improve the performance of a process.

With single buffering, the operating system dedicates a buffer to a process. This allows the process to work on one block while theI/O system reads another block into the buffer.

With double buffering, the operating system dedicates two buffers to a process. The process can then empty one buffer while the I/Osystem fills the other. This allows the process to process data as fast as the I/O system can read it in.

Why is the average search time to find a record in a file less for an indexed sequential file than for a sequential file?

With a sequential file, the records are stored in order of a particular key, but searching requires going through all of therecords sequentially until a match is found. In an indexed sequential file, the index contains pointers to every K records in the file. For a file with Nrecords, searching for a record with a particular key requires searching only the N/K entries in the index, and then the K records in that section of thefile. Depending on the size of K, this can be considerably less than sequentially searching through all N entries.

Briefly describe the four categories of information stored in a file directory. give an example of an item from each category, along with a oneSentence description.

  • Basic information is used to identify the file and includes the file name and type.
  • Address information is used to find the file on disk and includes the address and size of the file.
  • Access control information is used to provide sharing and protection and includes the owner and related access information.
  • Usage information is used for accounting and includes such items as the date of creation and last modification.

Problems

Perform the same type of analysis as that of table 11.2 for the following sequence of disk track requests: 27, 129, 110, 186, 147, 41, 10, 64,120. assume that the disk head is initially positioned over track 100 and is moving in the direction of decreasing track number. do the same analysis, butNow assume that the disk head is moving in the direction of increasing track number.

Answer:

FIFO SSTF SCAN C-SCAN
Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed
27 73 110 10 64 36 64 36
129 102 120 10 41 23 41 23
110 19 129 9 27 14 27 14
186 76 147 18 10 17 10 17
147 39 186 39 110 100 186 176
41 106 64 122 120 10 147 39
10 31 41 23 129 9 129 18
64 54 27 14 147 18 120 9
120 56 10 17 186 39 110 10
Average 61.8 Average 29.1 Average 29.6 Average 38

If the disk head is initially moving in the direction of increasing track number, the results change for only scan and c-scan:

SCAN C-SCAN
Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed Next track accessed Number of tracks traversed
110 10 110 10
120 10 120 10
129 9 129 9
147 18 147 18
186 39 186 39
64 122 10 176
41 23 27 17
27 14 41 14
10 17 64 23
Average 29.1 Average 35.1

Consider the disk system described in Problem 11.9 and assume the disk rotates at 360 rpm. A processor reads one sector from thedisk using interrupt-driven I/O, with one interrupt per byte. If it takes 2.5 μs to process each interrupt, what percentage of time will the processor spendhandling I/O (disregard seek time)? Repeat using DMA, and assume one interrupt per sector.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Operating systems. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10785/1.2
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