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This module explains how to write a program that creates an audio output consisting of a 1000 Hz square wave in a format that is accessible to blind students.

Table of contents

Preface

This module is part of a collection titled Accessible Objected-Oriented Programming Concepts for Blind Students using Java . It explains how to write a program that creates an audio output consistingof a 1000 Hz square wave.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find the listings while you are reading about them.

Listings

  • Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named SquareWave.
  • Listing 2 . Beginning of the getMelody method.
  • Listing 3 . Local working variables.
  • Listing 4 . Set the frequency of the square wave.
  • Listing 5 . Decompose val into two bytes.
  • Listing 6 . Populate the audio data array.
  • Listing 7 . The class named AudioFormatParameters01.
  • Listing 8 . The class named AudioPlayOrFile01.
  • Listing 9 . The class named AudioSignalGenerator02.
  • Listing 10 . The class named MusicComposer05.
  • Listing 11 . The class named SquareWave.

General background information

What is sound ?

An earlier module titled Jbs2000-What is Sound? explained some of the physical characteristics of sound. It also explained that sound can beproduced when a computer program causes the diaphragms on audio speakers connected to the computer to move back and forth or vibrate.

White noise

An earlier module titled Jbs2010-Your First Sound Program explained how a random number generator can be used in a program to cause the speakerdiaphragms to move back and forth or vibrate in a random fashion producing what is commonly called white noise or pink noise. (Click WhiteNoise to hear a sample of white or pink noise. You should be able to play the audio file with any standard mediaplayer that can handle the AU file type. In case you are on the OpenStax site and you are unable to download the audio file, click the Legacy Site link at the top of this page to switch over to the same module on the Legacy site.You shouldbe able to download the audio file from there.)

White noise is totally unorganized or random. Beginning with this module, we will start applying more organization to the sound until we reach the pointwhere we can write a program that simulates a player piano. (Click Greensleeves to hear a simulation of a player piano.)

A square wave

In this module, we will write a program that attempts to cause the diaphragms to move back and forth instantaneously switching from one position to another by creatingaudio data based on a square wave. (Click SquareWave to hear a sample of a 1000 Hz square wave. A future module will compare the sound of a 1000 Hzsquare wave with the sound of a pure 1000 Hz sinusoidal tone.)

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
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Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
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Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible objected-oriented programming concepts for blind students using java. OpenStax CNX. Sep 01, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11349/1.17
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