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NOTE: 38: The Holy Roman Empire And The Norman Kingdom in South Italy

Map taken from Reference 97.

Western europe

At the beginning of this 1 0th century the map of western Europe, in part as a result of Viking raids, was a mosaic of intricate, interlacing counties, communities, principalities and lordships, all part of the feudal system. By the second half of the century the Viking raids had diminished and western Europe recovered rapidly. The heavy mold-board plow came into general use and made a great increase in agriculture possible, as drainage was obtained. Four oxen and long fields were required for this type of plow. While the mer- chants of the other civilization of Eurasia were primarily caterers to the tastes of their social superiors and were accustomed to regulation and taxation from above in the "command" system, which we mentioned at the beginning of the chapter, the aggressive, ruthless and self-reliant ethos of western European merchants was profoundly different. The distinctive characteristics of subsequent western history arise largely from this fact. (Ref. 8 , 139 )

Spain and portugal

Garcia, king of Leon, began an expansion eastward, building numerous castles in the area later to be known as Castile. The chiefly Berber armies of the Spanish Omayyad Caliphate periodically devastated the Christian kingdoms of both Leon and Navarre (Basque territory) but the Christian kings paid tribute and thus survived to eventually return the honors and attack the south. When this did occur, one reason was that sheep, which were vital to the economy of northern Spain, had to be taken south to winter pasture in the region held by the Arabs. Famines occurred in 915 and 929, probably due to the disease "rust" on wheat. (Ref. 137 , 211 )

In the Moslem area of the south the great city of Cordoba had 700 mosques, 3 public baths, a palace with 400 halls and rooms and a library with 400,000 books, as we have previously noted. This famed library continued to draw poets and scholars from all over the Moslem Empire. Abul Kasim, of Cordoba, wrote the first illustrated book of surgery, named Al-Tasrif, which included descriptions of lithotomy, tracheotomy and thyroidectomy, among other procedures. Eastern Islam carried sugar cane to Spain and to Madeira and the Canaries, where later it became an important industry.

The Jews of Cordoba lavished much money to draw men of Jewish law and letters to the city in an attempt to establish a Jewish rebirth politically and culturally. The most famous Jew of this era was the physician and politician, Hasdai ibn Shaprut, famed as a healer who translated medical works of the Greeks into Arabic, but he was also secretary and ambassador to Caliph Abd-er Rahman III (912-961), greatest of the Moslem rulers in Spain. He was the son of a Frankish concubine and a grandson of a Basque princess. Hakam II, caliph from 961 to 976, was overthrown by a bureaucrat first minister, Al Mansur, who became a dictator. After his death, the caliph deteriorated. (Ref. 2 , 49 , 196 )

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
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Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
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preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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