<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Western europe

There was a late Copper Age in Spain with techniques coming across southern Europe from the Caucasus, after 3,000 B.C. A source of tin was found in northwest Spain so that the area could readily participate in the bronze industries between 2,500 and 1,500 B.C. Some of the metal-using communities, such as those in southern Spain and Portugal about 2,500 had to be fortified and some had two high walls with outlying fortresses to give warning of attack. Defenders fought with bow and arrows. (Ref. 175 )

In the last chapter we discussed the 4th millennium inhabitants of England, the Windmill Hill people. It was probably these who, at the beginning of the 3rd millennium, started to build a series of remarkable stone monuments in southern England. The best known and most thoroughly investigated, written about, photographed, painted and romanticized of these, is Stonehenge. The original structure, Stonehenge 1, dates to not later than 2,900 when there were already some 180 separate habitation centers in Wessex. At Stonehenge, first of all there was dug a circular ditch some 1,050 feet in circumference, 4 1/2 to 6 feet deep and 12 feet wide. The purpose of this was to supply the chalk soil for a bank which was thus built up along the inner side of the ditch. It has been estimated that this alone required about 28,000 man-hours of work, using red-deer antlers for picks and whatever for shovels. The bank measures 320 feet in diameter and was at least 6 feet high, although some say 20 feet, with a causeway entrance on the northeast. Only a few stones were used in Stage I, a couple at the causeway entrance and perhaps the four Station Stones, but a mysterious feature was a group of 53 post holes also in the causeway entrance.

Most modern scholars are convinced that these were used for precise and constant observation of the extreme northerly risings of the moon for a hundred years or more. It requires nineteen years for the moon to exactly repeat its course in relation to the earth and sun, so that predictions of moon positions, possible eclipses, etc. require long periods of observation. The average diameter of the post holes is 3 feet 6 inches, with a depth of 2 1/2 feet.

There is no evidence that they ever held stones or wooden posts. Some have yielded cremation remains, flakes of flint, cups, etc. all adding to the mystery. Professor Fred Hoyle (Ref. 99 ) believes that this was not built by local people, but by some who came especially to place the circle at the exact spot needed for some astronomical reasons.

After Phase I of Stonehenge was completed (but before Phase II) another enormous, strange construction appeared about one-half mile north of Stonehenge. This is a narrow horse-shoe shaped earthworks with each leg running for one and three-quarters miles, and which is called the "Cursus", because some have felt it represents a Neolithic race-track. There is some evidence that the bluestones which we shall see were used in Stonehenge II had earlier either been used for some purpose or stock-piled at the western end of this Cursus. There are about twenty similar constructions in Britain and this one is the second longest and it may even pre-date Stonehenge I. The longest Cursus is at Dorset and measures 6.2 miles in length. (Ref. 7 ) There are none of these constructions outside Britain.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?